**Topics, N**

**N****-Body Problem** > see Many-Body Systems.

**n****-Plectic Structures ** > see symplectic structures.

**N****-Point Correlation
Functions** > s.a.
correlations; green functions,
in quantum field theory; Normal Order.

* __In quantum field theory__: They are important in the study
of the short-distance structure of quantum field theory; For small |*x* – *y*|
and the right function spaces one gets behaviors like \(\langle\)0| *φ*(*x*) *φ*(*y*)
|0\(\rangle\) = *c* |*x *– *y*|^{–d};
> s.a. quantum field theory effects.

@ __In quantum field theory__:
Lu ht/05 [1-point functions, perturbative];
Mestre & Oeckl JMP(06) [relationships, Hopf-algebra approach];
Guerra et al EPJB(07)-a0704 [calculation, and
non-perturbative renormalization group].

**n****-Poset** > see generalizations of posets.

**Nambu Algebras / Brackets / Mechanics** > s.a.
poisson brackets; deformation
quantization.

@ __References__: Nambu PRD(73); Fecko JMP(13)-a1306 [symmetries and conserved quantities]; Müller & Névir JPA(14) [geometric application].

**Nambu Tensor** > see killing fields.

**Nambu-Goldstone Boson** > see symmetry
breaking.

**Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Model**

@ __General references__: Battistel et al PRD(08)-a0803
[strategy to handle divergences]; Novello IJMPA(11)-a1004 [from gravitational interaction
and extended Mach principle].

@ __In curved spacetime__: Elizalde et al PRD(94)ht/93 [phase
structure and chiral symmetry breaking].

> __Online resources__: see Wikipedia page.

**Nanoscale Systems** > see generalized thermodynamics.

**Narcowich-Wigner Spectrum**

@ __References__: Dias & Prata RPMP(09)-a0812 [of
a pure state].

**Nariai Metric** > see schwarzschild-de
sitter spacetime.

**Narratability of a Theory**

* __Idea__: A theory is narratable
if specifying the state of the system on every spacelike hypersurface in a given
foliation of spacetime is sufficient
to determine the states on other hypersurfaces, so the history of the system
can
be told as a narration of states at successive times.

@ __References__: Judes a1002 [and cluster decomposition].

**Naturalness of a Physical Theory** > s.a. Fine Tuning; physical
theories [criteria].

* __ Types__: Structural
and numerical naturalness (no fine tuning); The former is more subjective,
and has generated many wrong theories.

* __Rem__:
This
criterion
has been for many years a guiding principle in the search for physics beyond the Standard Model, but it has been called into question; It might be rejected at some deep scales (see, e.g. Linde's smörgåsbord
picture
of many universes created after inflation), and needs to be treated
with care.

@ __References__: Dine a1501-ARNPS [rev, conjectures, challenges and alternatives]; Pivovarov a1508-proc [formal criterion, and the Standard Model].

**Navier-Stokes Equation** > s.a. fluid; variational principles.

$ __Navier-Stokes equation__:
The non-linear set of pde's describing the time evolution of the fluid velocity
and pressure of an incompressible viscous homogeneous Newtonian fluid in terms
of given initial velocity and external body forces; It expresses momentum conservation,
and is obtained applying Newton's laws to the flow of the fluid,
and adding a term that accounts for energy lost through viscosity

∂_{t }*u* +
(*u* · ∇) *u* = –*ρ*^{–1} ∇*p*+ *ν*∇^{2}*u* ,

where *u* satisfies ∇ · *u* =
0, *p* = pressure, *ρ* = density (constant), and *ν* =
(kinematic molecular) viscosity; > s.a. mathematics.

@ __References__: Succi 01 [lattice Boltzmann equation; r PT(02)dec];
Streater mp/01 [corrections];
Brüger et al JCP(04)
[high-order numerical solution]; Gill & Zachary NLA(10)mp/07, mp/07 [initial
data for global solutions]; Romeo a1007-conf [aspects of the initial-value problem]; news sf(14)feb [Terence Tao's new approach]; Dlotko a1501 [new approach]; news Quanta(15)jul [and the Boltzmann equation, incompleteness]; Gutiérrez-Santacreu a1508 [existence of smooth solutions]; > s.a. Boltzmann
Equation.

@ __Variations__: Lichtenfelz a1502 [on negatively curved Riemannian manifolds, non-uniqueness of solutions].

> __Related topics__: see solutions of einstein's equation.

> __Online resources__: see MathWorld page; Wikipedia page.

**Nebulae** > see interstellar
matter.

**Negative Probabilities** > see probability
in physics.

**Nekhoroshev Theorem** > see types of integrable systems.

**Nernst Theorem** > see thermodynamics [3rd law].

**Nerve **> s.a. cover [nerve
of a covering].

$ __Of a category__: The
simplicial set in which the simplices in degree *k* are the chains of
morphisms *a*_{0}, *a*_{0},
..., *a*_{k} in
the category; In other words: A vertex for each object, and a *k*-simplex
for each *k*-tuple of composable morphisms.

> __Online resources__: see Webb ln(99).

**Nester Form** > see Metric-Affine Gravity.

**Net** > s.a. Conformal
Net; Filter Base; geodesic net.

$
__Def__: A function from a directed set *X* to some other
set; A "sequence" whose index set is not totally ordered.

* __Examples__: A sequence,
which is obtained for *X* = \(\mathbb N\); Observable
nets in quantum field theory (> see C*-Algebras; observable algebras).

@ __References__: Mustafa & Ray CG(10)
[basis for weak *ε*-nets for finite sets of points in Euclidean space].

**Neumann Functions** > see bessel functions.

**Neumann Problem** > s.a. green functions.

* __Idea__: A boundary-value
problem for second-order elliptic partial differential equations.

* __Result__: ∃ 1!
solution to ∇^{2}*φ*
= –*ρ*/*ε*_{0} inside a region
*V*, with ∂*φ*/∂*n* fixed on ∂*V*, up to an additive constant.

> __Specific theories__: see action for general relativity [covariant notion of Neumann boundary conditions].

**Neural Network** > see network.

**Neutral Manifold / Metric** > see types of metrics.

**Neutralino** > s.a. dark-matter phenomenology.

* __Idea__: A particle predicted
by supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model that is a candidate for dark matter.

@ __References__: Abbasi et IceCube PRL(09) [bounds from muon flux in Antarctic ice]; Grothaus et al JHEP(13)-a1207 [parameter space and naturalness]; Fan & Reese JHEP(13)-a1307 [searches for light, nonthermal wino dark matter].

**Neutrino** > s.a. in
cosmology and astrophysics; mixing and oscillations.

**Neutrix Calculus** > s.a. regularization;
renormalization.

* __Idea__: Neutrices
are additive groups of negligible functions that do not contain any constants
except 0; Their calculus was developed by van der Corput and Hadamard in connection
with asymptotic series and divergent integrals.

**Neutron Stars** > s.a. pulsars.

**Newman-Janis Algorithm** > see solution-generating methods for the einstein equation.

**Newman-Penrose Formalism** > see spin
coefficients.

**Newman-Tamburino Metrics**

@ __References__: Steele gq/04 [Killing
vector]; De Groote & Van den Bergh CQG(08),
CQG(08)
[with Maxwell
field].

**News Tensor** > see asymptotic
flatness at null infinity.

**Newton-Cotes Methods** > see integration.

**Newton-Schrödinger Equations**

@ __References__: Anastopoulos & Hu NJP(14)-a1403 [problems].

**Newton-Wigner Localization** > see localization; quantum
particles.

**Newton's Bucket Argument**

* __Idea__: The argument by Newton for the existence of absolute space, based on the fact that one can tell whether a reference frame is rotating with respect to absolute space by looking at whether the surface of the water inside a bucket is flat or concave (once the water is at rest with respect to the bucket); The argument was criticized by Mach.

@ __References__: in Barbour & Pfister 95; Kubiak v1110, Sekhar a1305 [and the liquid-mirror telescope]; Staley PT(13)dec [Mach's position]; Shuler PhysEd(15) [and Mach's principle].

> __Online resources__: see Wikipedia page.

**Newton's Cradle**

* __Idea__: A device that demonstrates conservation of momentum and energy using a set of swinging metal spheres.

@ __References__: news pw(14)may [quantum analog].

> __Online resources__: see Wikipedia page.

**Newton's Gravitational Constant**

**Newton's Laws of Dynamics** > s.a. classical
mechanics [including variations and generalizations].

* __First law / Law of inertia__: For a free
particle
in an inertial frame,
d**u**/d*t* = 0, where **u** = velocity and
in the relativistic version *t* is usually proper
time; In words, unless a net force is acting on an object, the object will keep moving with constant speed in the same direction; As opposed to the Aristotelian view that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.

* __Second law__: In an inertial
frame, *m* d**u**/d*t* = **f**, where **f** is
the force acting
on the particle; Has been considered as a definition rather than a true law of
nature, based on the argument that force cannot be measured directly but only
through
the
acceleration
it produces on a given mass.

* __Third law__: The "principle
of action and reaction," for objects *A* and *B*, the force **F**_{AB} of *A* on *B* is
equal and opposite to the force **F**_{BA} of *B* on *A*;
It holds unless there are accelerated charges (magnetic forces, or self-forces
from radiation reaction); The laws of conservation of energy-momentum and angular
momentum are based on it; It can be violated when the interacting particles are embedded in a non-equilibrium environment.

* __Limitations, tests__: Newton's
second law is expected to break down for subatomic scales; At macroscopic ones, one way to
test its validity is to check that the frequency of a pendulum is independent of amplitude (if small).

@ __General references__: Eisenbud AJP(58)mar
[objections and formulation]; Brehme AJP(85)oct
[laws as definitions];
Anderson AJP(90)dec [not
definitions];
Grabowska & Urbański mp/04 [frame-independent];
Kokarev a0905 [three
lectures]; Zimba 09 [illustrated guide]; Lee FP(11) [and infinite systems]; Stocklmayer et al TPT(12) [introduction of the laws in the classroom].

@ __First law__: Pfister FPL(04);
Rabinowitz IJTP(08)
[and quantum mechanics]; Weatherall a1206-ch [inertial motion and its explanation by the geodesic principle]; Hecht TPT(15)#2 [history, origins].

@ __Second law__: Hacyan AJP(09)jul [meaning of modifications or tests]; Pourciau AJP(11)oct [what did Newton say in the *Principia*?]; Stefanini & Reali a1502 [new interpretation proposed].

@ __Third law__:
Anandan & Brown FP(95)
[and pilot-wave theory];
Fraser SHPSA(05)
[and argument for second law]; Dykstra AJP(09)aug; Pinheiro PS(11) [possible violations]; Ivlev et al PRX(15) + news PhysOrg(15) [violation, and statistical mechanics]; > s.a. Action-Reaction Principle; photon phenomenology [negative effective mass].

@ __Bounds on violations__: Abramovici & Vager
PRD(86)
[ok down to 3 × 10^{–9} cm/s^{2}];
Gundlach et al PRL(07)
+ pn(07)apr
[ok down to 5 × 10^{–14} cm/s^{2}].

@ __Modifications__:
Milton & Willis PRS(07)
[second, continuum
elastodynamics]; Unzicker gq/07 [and
gravity]; Sprott AJP(09)sep
[modified third law]; > s.a. force; MOND.

> __Related concepts__:
see force; inertia
and inertial frame; mass.

**Newton's (Shell / "Superb") Theorem**

* __Idea__: A spherically symmetric mass distribution attracts a body outside of it as if the entire mass were concentrated at the center; In Newtonian physics it is also true that a hollow, spherically symmetric mass distribution produces no gravitational effect inside it; In general relativity, while a corresponding statement about points outside a spherically symmeric object is still true (*mutatis mutandis*), a spherical shell does have an effect at locations inside.

@ __References__: Schmid AJP(11)may [elementary geometric proof]; Zang & Yi IJMPCS(12)-a1203-conf [in general relativity]; > s.a. schwarzschild solution [interior metric].

**Newtonian Limit of General Relativity** > see phenomenology of gravity.

**Newtonian Physics** > see cosmological models [Newtonian cosmology]; newtonian gravity and tests
of newtonian gravity; physical theories [frameworks].

**Newtorites**

* __Idea__: Particles with only gravitational interactions.

@ __References__: Ronga JPCS(16)-a1511 [detection].

**Nicolai Map**

* __Idea__: A change of variables for a gauge theory from the gauge connection in a fixed gauge to the anti-selfdual part of the curvature.

@ __References__:
Bochicchio & Pilloni JHEP(13)-a1304.

**Nieh-Yan Form**

@ __General references__: Guo et al CTP(99)ht/98; Li JPA(99)ht.

@ __And physics__: Soo PRD(99)ht/98 [and the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly]; Mielke PRD(09), Banerjee CQG(10)-a1002 [and gravity]; > s.a. theories of gravity.

**Nightmare Scenario**

* __Idea__: The scenario in which the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) fails to discover physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM).

@ __References__: Bertone et al JCAP(12) [consequences for dark matter, in cMSSM].

**Nijenhuis Torsion Tensor** > see types
of symplectic structures.

**9 j Symbol** > see SU(2).

**No-Cloning Theorem** > s.a. quantum
technology.

@ __References__: Hari Dass a1005 [for harmonic-oscillator coherent states]; Gauthier RPMP(13) [for an infinite multiverse]; Ortigoso a1707 [1970 proof].

**No-Hair Theorems** > see black-hole
hair; Cosmic No-Hair Conjecture.

**Noise** > s.a. partial
differential equations [stochastic].

* __Shot noise__: Fluctuations
in a counting rate that are Poissonian, i.e., if the mean number of counts
in a certain time interval or spatial volume is *N*, then the variance (δ*N*)^{2} of that number is also equal to *N*.

@ __1/ f noise__: in Kaplan & Glass 95 [II]; Kuzovlev PU(15)-a1504 [origin and significance].

@

@

**Noiseless Subsystems** > see generalized coherent
states.

**Non-Archimedean Structures / Numbers** > s.a. Archimedean Property / Adelic and *p*-Adic Structures; types of numbers; geometry.

* __Idea__: A structure which has a pair of non-zero elements, one of which is infinitesimal with respect to the other; In other words, one with infinitely large and/or small elements; For example, hyperreal numbers, surreal numbers, *p*-adic numbers.

@ __In physics__:
El Naschie CSF(04)
[fundamental length and all that]; Rosinger m.HO/05 [use in general].

@ __And elementary particles__:
Dimitrijevic et al FU(04)ht; Varadarajan & Virtanen a1002.

@ __And cosmology__: Avinash & Rvachev FP(00); Djordjević & Nešić PAOB-a1011 [*p*-adic and adelic quantum cosmology and tachyonic inflation]; > s.a. quantum particles.

> __Online resources__: see Wikipedia page.

**Non-Associative Algebras**

* __Motivation__: They appear in some exotic systems such as magnetic monopoles.

@ __In physics__: Bojowald et al PRL(15)-a1510 [quantum mechanics, potentially testable effects]; Kupriyanov a1603-PoS [in physics]; > s.a. observable algebras [in quantum theory]; Supersymmetry.

**Non-Associative Geometry** > s.a. Octonions \ types of manifolds.

@ __ General references__: Wulkenhaar ht/96, ht/96, PLB(97)ht/96 [standard
model], ht/96 [grand
unification];
Nesterov & Sabinin CMUC(00)ht-conf, PRD(00)ht [and
spacetime]; Beggs & Majid JPCS(10); > s.a. particle physics.

@ __And gravity / spacetime__: Nesterov & Sabinin ht/00-conf, Sabinin IJTP(01) [and discrete spacetime]; Nesterov & Sabinin PRD(00)ht [de Sitter spacetime], IJGMP(06)ht/04 [FLRW
models]; Harikumar & Rivelles CQG(06)ht [and
non-commutative gravity]; Farsnworth & Boyle JHEP-a1303 [spectral action]; Blumenhagen & Fuchs JHEP(16)-a1604.

@ __Other physics__: Sbitneva IJTP(01) [special relativistic kinematics]; Blumenhagen & Plauschinn JPA(11)-a1010 [from string theory]; Mylonas & Szabo FdP(14)-a1404-proc [on non-geometric spaces]; Barnes et al PoS-a1601 [field theory]; Bakas a1605-proc [in Dirac's generalization of Maxwell theory]; > s.a. Supersymmetry.

> __ Other physics__: see modified
quantum mechanics; particle physics beyond the standard model; phase space [quantum]; types of gauge theories.

**Non-Commutativity** > s.a.
non-commutative geometry and spacetime; in physical
theories,
in field
theory and gravitation.

@ __References__: MacKenzie ThSc(97)may [general notion].

**Non-Conservative System** > see classical systems.

**Non-Degenerate Bilinear Form** > see Bilinear
Form.

**Non-Demolition Principle** >
s.a. experiments in quantum mechanics.

@ __References__: Marcovitch & Reznik a1002-wd [and quantum predictions].

**Non-Equilibrium Systems** > see in
statistical mechanics
and thermodynamics; states in quantum field theory; temperature.

**Non-Euclidean Geometry** > see geometry.

**Non-Extensive Statistical Mechanics**

**Non-Gaussianity** > see under Gaussianity.

**Non-Hermitian Quantum Theory** > see modified quantum
mechanics [PT-symmetric].

**Non-Holonomic Systems** > see types
of constrained
systems; quantum systems.

**Non-Imprisonment Conditions on Spacetime**

@ __References__: Minguzzi JMP(08) [and distinction property].

**Non-Linear Analysis** > see analysis.

**Non-Linear Systems / Field Theory** > see classical
systems;
sigma-model; types
of quantum field theories.

**Non-Linear Quantum Mechanics** >
s.a. brownian motion; causality
violations; schrödinger equation [including
WKB].**
***

*

@

@

@

@

@

@

@

@

@

@

**Non-Local Field Theories** > see locality; modified gravity
theories; types of quantum
field theories.

**Non-Metricity** > see affine connection.

**Non-Perturbative Features of Field Theory** > see instantons; solitons.

**Non-Renormalization Theorems** > see renormalization; supersymmetry
in field theory.

**Non-Squeezing Theorem** > see symplectic geometry.

**Non-Symmetric Geometry and Gravity** > s.a. kaluza-klein theory; unified theories.

* __Idea__: A geometry and theory of gravity in which the metric tensor is not symmetric; The vacuum field equations are

g_{μν}_{, σ}–gΓ_{ρν}^{ρ}_{μσ}–gΓ_{μρ}^{ρ}_{σν}= 0 , [(–g)^{1/2}g^{[μν]}]_{,ν}= 0 ,R_{(αβ)}= 0 ,R_{[αβ], γ}+R_{[βγ], α}+R_{[γα], β}= 0.

* __History__: The non-symmetric
theory of gravity was proposed by J Moffat; It attracted a lot of attention until the mid-1990s, when it was thought that the theory does not include black holes, but this claim was proved incorrect by work by Burko and Ori.

@ __General references__: Kunstatter et al JMP(83)
[geometrical structure]; Damour et al PRD(93),
gq/93 [problems];
Cornish & Moffat gq/94;
Moffat JMP(95),
JMP(95);
Ragusa PRD(97); Jurco et al a1512-MG14 [and generalized geometry].

@ __Related topics__: Clayton IJMPA(97)gq/95 [Hamiltonian];
Mebarki et al PS(97)
[quantization]; Wanas & Kahil GRG(99)gq [quantization
of paths].

@ __Cosmology__:
Moffat ap/97 [birefringence];
Prokopec & Valkenburg PLB(06)ap/05 [inflation
and cmb].

@ __Black holes__: Burko & Ori PRL(95)gq, gq/95 [black holes do form].

@ __Other phenomenology__: Woolgar PRD(90)
[lunar orbit]; Legare & Moffat gq/95 [test
particles]; Moffat & Sokolov
PLB(96)ap/95 [galaxies];
Moffat gq/04,
JCAP(05)ap/04 [galaxy
rotation curves]; Moffat gq/04 [Gravity
Probe-B], CQG(06)
[time delay]; Janssen & Prokopec CQG(06)gq [instability];
Prokopec & Valkenburg ap/06,
Janssen & Prokopec JPA(07)gq/06-conf
[massive,
as dark matter]; Hammond IJMPD(13) [non-symmetric part as the potential for the spin field]; Pérez Teruel MPLA(14) [and particle interactions].

> __Related topics__: see anomalous
acceleration [Pioneer
10/11]; bianchi
models; equivalence principle.

> __Online resources__: see Wikipedia page.

**Nordström Theory of Gravity** > see Scalar
Theory of Gravity.

**Nordtvedt Effect** > s.a. equivalence
principle; tests of general relativity with
orbits.

* __Idea__: A (possible)
violation of the strong equivalence principle in the Earth-Moon system; It
would show up in a departure from geodesic motion, e.g., with a "polarization" of
the Moon's orbit.

@ __References__: Dicke in(64); Nordtvedt PR(68), PR(68);
in Misner et al 73, p1128.

> __Online resources__: see Wikipedia page.

**Normal Coordinates on a Lie Group** > see coordinates.

**Normal Coordinates on a Manifold** > see coordinates.

**Normal Distribution** > see gaussian.

**Normal Matrix / Operator** > see operator
theory.

**Normal Modes** > see molecular physics.

**Normal Product / Ordering** > s.a. fock
space.

$ __Def__: The normally-ordered
product in the algebra of boson and fermion operators on Fock space is

**:***A*_{1} *A*_{2} ...* A*_{n}**:** or
N(*A*_{1}* A*_{2} ... *A*_{n}):=
(–1)^{p} *A*_{p1} *A*_{p2} ... *A*_{pn}
,

where {*p*_{1},* p*_{2},
..., *p*_{n}} is a permutation
of {1, 2, ..., *n*} such that annihilation operators always appear to the right of creation operators,
and *p* is the number of times two fermion operators have been commuted; In addition,
to make this operation well-defined, we require linearity, **:***A*+*B***:** =
**:***A***:** + **:***B***:** and **:***cA***:** = *c* **:***A***:**.

* __Applications__: Resolve operator-ordering ambiguities,
and regularize divergent quantities; e.g. for a scalar field

*H* = \(\frac12\)∑_{k}
(*a*_{k}^{†} *a*_{k}
+ *a*_{k} *a*_{k}^{†} ) *ω* diverges, *H* = **:**\(\frac12\)∑_{k}
(*a*_{k}^{†} *a*_{k}
+ *a*_{k} *a*_{k}^{†} ) *ω***:**
= ∑_{k} *a*_{k}^{†} *a*_{k} *ω* does
not .

* __Conditions__: It depends
on a choice of vacuum, so it is not obvious how to define it in curved spacetime.

@ __General references__: Wurm & Berg AJP(08)jan
[basic ideas and results]; Plimak & Stenholm AP(12)-a1307 [generalization to interacting fields].

@ __Combinatorics, formulas__: Katriel LNC(74);
Katriel JOB(02);
Błasiak et al PLA(03),
CzJP(05)qp-conf,
JMP(05);
Solomon et al qp/04-conf;
Horzela et al qp/04-conf;
Schork PLA(06)
[*q*-deformed bosons]; Błasiak PhD(05)qp;
Mansour et al IJTP(08)qp/06 [non-crossing], PLA(07)qp/06 [generalization];
Błasiak et al AJP(07)jul-a0704 [introduction];
Błasiak & Flajolet SLC-a1010.

@ __In curved spacetime__: Nikolić GRG(05)ht/02 [generalization
based
on 2-point function].

> __Online Resources__: see Wikipedia page.

**Normal Space** > see types of
topologies.

**Normal Subgroup of a Group** > see group.

**Normalizer of a Subset of a Group** > see group.

**Nothing** > s.a. boundary conditions in quantum cosmology [universe-from-nothing proposals].

* __Idea__: The absence of spacetime.

@ __References__: Brown & Dahlen PRD(12)-a1111 [as an infinitely-negatively-curved spacetime, and tunneling in cosmology].

**Notoph**

* __Idea__: A particle
whose helicity properties are opposite to those of the photon; A (3+1)-dimensional
free Abelian 2-form, described by a gauge theory; Proposed in the 1960s
by Ogievetskii and Polubarinov, but the theory goes under the names of Kalb
& Ramond, who developed the theoretical concept.

@ __References__: Dvoeglazov PS(01)phy/98;
Malik ht/03-proc
[as Hodge theory], PPNL(11)-a0912-conf [superfield formalism, BRST transformations]; Dvoeglazov JPCS(15)-a1308 [notoph-graviton-photon coupling]; Bandos & Ortín PRD(15)-a1502 [in *N* = 8 supergravity].

**Nova** > see star types.

**Nowhere Dense Subset**

* __Idea__: *A* ⊂ *X*
is nowhere dense if every ball *U* ⊂ *X*
contains another ball *V* ⊂ *X*
which has no points in *A*.

**NP-Completeness** > see computational complexity; mathematics [Millennium Problems].

**NP Formalism** > stands for Newman-Penrose.

**Nuclear Operator** > same as Trace-Class.

**Nuclear Physics** > s.a. nuclear
technology.

**Nucleosynthesis** > see nuclear physics; astrophysics; early-universe nucleosynthesis.

**Null Cone** > see Light Cone.

**Null Coordinates** > see coordinates.

**Null Curve, Surface** > see spacetime subsets.

**Nullity (Spinor)** > see types of spinors.

**Numbers** > s.a. Mathematical Constants; physical constants; types
.

* __Special numbers__:
All numbers are special, but some are more special than others; Large numbers
studied are the Sandreckoner's number 10^{63},
Googol and Googolplex; Other special integers include 142,857 (see what happens to it when multiplied by 2, 6, 4, 5, and by 7), 26 (the only one between a square and a cube); > for more see number theory [including prime numbers, factoring,
...].

* __Notation__: We
use a "geometric" modulus 10 notation, with a set of 10 "Arabic" symbols
{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} that can be used to write more than 10 integers
by position-dependent convention, in which the one placed in the *n*-th
position from the right is to be interpreted as multiplied by 10^{n–1};
Babylonians used to count in modulus 60; Alternatives are the Roman numerals, or the factorial number system [> see MathPages
page].

@ __General references__: Johnson & Jedrzejewski 14 [patterns and drawings].

@ __Special numbers__: Adrian 06; Flannery 06 [2^{1/2}]; Posamentier & Lehmann 09.

> __Examples__: see Catalan
Numbers; e; Euler(-Mascheroni)
Constant; Feigenbaum Number; Golden
Ratio; Googol; Googolplex; Googolplexian; i; Infinite;
Omega Number; π; Silver
Mean; Zero.

> __Online Resources__: see Internet Encyclopedia of Science pages.

**Number Operator** > see fock space.

**Numerical Methods** > see computational
physics; numerical general relativity.

**Numerical Relativity** > s.a. models.

**NUT Space** > s.a. maxwell
fields in curved spacetime; null infinity; schwarzschild
spacetime [modified solution, and NUT parameter].

* __Idea__: A solution of
Einstein's equation that can be interpreted as describing the exterior field
of two counter-rotating semi-infinite sources possessing negative masses and infinite
angular momenta, which are attached to the poles of a static finite rod of positive mass.

* __NUT 4-momentum and charges__:
The NUT 4-momentum is the magnetic dual of the Bondi-Sachs 4-momentum at null infinity,
and it is absolutely conserved, even if there is gravitational radiation; Gravitational
fields with non-vanishing NUT 4-momenta are not physically
significant in classical general relativity, but may play a role
in quantum gravity [@ Ashtekar & Sen JMP(82)].

@ __References__: Krori & Bhattacharjee PLA(81)
[in Brans-Dicke theory]; Nouri-Zonoz et al CQG(99)gq/98 [dual];
Dadhich & Patel gq/02 [*G* →
0 limit]; Manko & Ruíz CQG(05)gq
[interpretation].

**Nyquist Theorem**

* __Idea__: One of the few general results known in non-equilibrium thermodynamics; It relates tiny equilibrium voltage fluctuations across a conductor with its resistance.

@
__References__: Singh a1409 [non-linear Nyquist theorem].

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23 jul 2017