Beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics |

**In General** > s.a. particle
physics and standard model.

* __Idea__: Many
unified models and extensions have been proposed, requiring varying
degrees of theory overhaul; Some of the proposals for physics beyond the
standard model are supersymmetry/supergravity, extra dimensions, string
theory, quark constituent models, Lorentz non-invariance, violations of
the weak equivalence principle, and variation of fundamental constants.

* __2002__: Evidence
for neutrino oscillations (\(\nu_\mu-\nu_\tau\)); Anomalous muon
magnetic moment (*g*–2) reported (indication of supersymmetry?).

* __2014, supersymmetry__:
An extension of the standard model involving supersymmetry is widely
believed to be the solution to many problems, such as the instability of
the Higgs boson and the arbitrariness of particle masses; But the most
popular supersymmetric theories predict new particles not much heavier
than the Higgs, which ought to have been seen by now at the LHC;
Physicists have been hunting for such particles for years and have ruled
out almost all of the predicted mass range for such theories; They have
cornered themselves experimentally, and new ideas will be needed if
supersymmetry is not detected.

* __2014, other__: A hint of departure
from the standard model is seen in results from a test of lepton universality.

* __2018__: There are no convincing
signs of new physics from the LHC, and only theoretical hints of new physics
happening near the Planck scale.

* __Scales__: The SM remains a
valid effective field theory up to the Planck energy, which may be the next energy
frontier (strong and electroweak interaction coupling constants approximately meet
1 or 2 orders of magnitude below, and the self-coupling of the Higgs boson flows
to zero near it); > s.a. unification.

@ __Reviews__: Kane SA(03)jun,
hp/04-proc [status];
Kazakov IJMPA(07);
Iliopoulos a0807;
Mangano IJMPA(08);
Nojiri yr(14)-a1407-conf;
Ricciardi et al a1507 [and dark matter].

@ __General references__: Ramond 00;
Dijkgraaf ht/97-ln
[conformal field theory, topological field theory, strings];
Chalmers ht/02
[M-theory based general relativity + standard model];
Goldhaber IJMPA(04);
Pokorski hp/05-ln;
van der Bij PLB(06);
Greenberg hp/06 [3-generation model];
Jenkins PhD(06)ht [and spontaneous Lorentz violation];
Ellis et al PLB(09)-a0906 [fate of standard model];
Grinstein PoS-a1102 [non-mainstream ideas];
Tiwari CP(11);
Sannino a1201
[new strong dynamics in particle physics and cosmology];
Fukuyama IJMPA(12)-a1201 [search using electric dipole moments];
Hajdukovic MPLA(13) [new physics?];
de Blas et al JHEP(18)-a1711 [effective description].

@ __Phenomenology / experiments__: Gallo IJMPA(07);
Grivaz IJMPA(08);
Brooijmans MPLA(09) [and the LHC];
news at(12)apr [indications in hints of Higgs particle];
news stfc(12)jun [hints in BaBar data on *B*-meson decay];
news PhysOrg(15)aug [more hints];
Afshordi et al a1703 [pulsar timing constraints];
Rong et al nComm(18)-a1706
[new approach, and constraints on axion-mediated electron-nucleon coupling];
Kimball Phy(17) [comagnetometry experiment];
news sn(18)sep [Belle II, KATRIN, muon \(g-2\)];
Gorham et al PRL(18) [inverted cosmic-ray-like event];
> s.a. lorentz-symmetry violations;
Nightmare Scenario.

**Specific Proposals**
> s.a. composite models; gravitation;
GUTs; nuclear physics;
time [2-time physics]; unified theories;
variation of fundamental constants.

* __Stückelberg extension__:
An extension of the electroweak gauge group with an extra abelian U(1)_{X} factor.

* __Standard model
extension__: A parametrized framework describing Lorentz-symmetry violations;
> s.a. modified lorentz symmetry.

* __Hidden sector__: A
collection of particles that are only weakly coupled to the standard model
ones; For an example, > see dark
matter and Wikipedia page.

* __Preon and other
constituent models__: 1996, Evidence in high *E*_{T}
jets at Fermilab? (> s.a. QCD).

* __With extra dimensions__:
Possibilities are Kaluza-Klein models, supergravity, strings and branes,
non-compact extensions (with localization).

* __Supergravity__: Not
to be tested soon (> supergravity).

@ __Mini-charged particles__: Jaeckel PRL(09) [Cavendish-type experiments];
Burrage et al JCAP(09)-a0909 [constraints from late-time CMB anisotropies].

@ __Standard model extension__: Bonder a1607-conf,
Bailey a1607-conf [gravitational sector];
Tasson Symm-a1610 [and gravitational tests];
Eichhorn et al a1810
[asymptotically safe, near-perturbative completion of the Standard Model with gravity].

@ __Conformality approach__: Frampton hp/06-conf [phenomenology];
Frampton & Kephart PRP(08)-a0706 [rev, quiver gauge theory].

@ __Scale-invariance and conformal symmetry__:
Alexander-Nunneley & Pilaftsis JHEP(10)-a1008 [minimal scale-invariant extension];
't Hooft FP(11)-a1104 [local conformal invariance as a spontaneously broken exact symmetry];
Fabbri GRG(12)
[conformal theory of metric-torsional gravitation];
Costantini a1704-PhD [and superconformal];
Faria a1903.

@ __Beyond three generations__:
Frampton et al PRP(00);
Belotsky et al ap/06-proc [and dark matter];
Holdom JHEP(06) [implications of a possible 4th family];
Erler & Langacker PRL(10) [constraints from electroweak precision data];
> s.a. standard model; types
of dark matter [many copies of standard model].

@ __Gauge theory and general relativity__: Dell & Smolin in(86);
Chang & Soo PRD(96)ht/94 [connection variables];
Anandan PRL(98)ht/97 [global topology and discrete symmetries];
Besprosvany IJTP(00)ht/02 [gauge and spacetime symmetry];
Wu CTP(03)ht [?],
CTP(03)ht [with massive graviton];
Anselmi PLB(04)ht [dimensional regularization].

@ __And string theory__: Kane Nat(11)dec [Higgs and strings];
Schellekens RMP(13)-a1306.

@ __ With extra dimensions__: Pomarol & Quirós PLB(98) [extra dimensions];
> s.a. branes; kaluza-klein theory
and phenomenology.

@ __Supersymmetric__: Beenakker et al a1409 [non-commutative supersymmetric Standard Model];
> s.a. supergravity;
supersymmetric theories [MSSM].

@ __Other theories__: Roepstorff ht/98 [in terms of superconnections];
Ribarič & Šušteršič Fiz(99)ht/98 [underlying theory];
Körs & Nath PLB(04),
JHEP(05) [Stückelberg extension];
Asaka & Shaposhnikov PLB(05)hp [neutrino minimal standard model, νMSM];
Maher & Beck CSF(08)-a0801 [larger theory, chaotic quantization];
Mankoč Borštnik FdP(17)-a1607-proc [spin-charge-family theory];
Ballesteros et al PRL(17)-a1608,
JCAP(17)-a1610,
a1904 [Standard Model Axion Seesaw Higgs, SMASH];
Herrera & Quintero a1707 [U(2) × U(3) gauge theory extension];
Kerner a1801-proc;
Moffat a1812 [ultraviolet complete model].

__Other theories__:
see axions; fifth force; lattice
gauge theory; Leptoquark; physics [TOEs];
renormalization [asymptotic safety, UV completions].

**Based on Other Mathematical Structures**
> s.a. non-commutative gauge theories.

@ __Non-associative geometry__:
Wulkenhaar ht/96 [and grand unification];
Wulkenhaar PLB(97)ht/96 [standard model],
ht/96 [GUTs];
Boyle & Farnsworth NJP(14)-a1401 [and non-commutative geometry].

@ __Related topics__: Boyle & Farnsworth JHEP-a1604 [new algebraic structure];
Furey a1611-PhD
[from the algebra \({\mathbb R}\otimes{\mathbb C}\otimes{\mathbb H}\otimes{\mathbb O}\)];
Dubois-Violette & Todorov a1808 [exceptional Jordan algebra J\(^8_3\)].

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