Particle Physics  

In General > s.a. astrophysics [astroparticle physics]; cosmology; experimental particle physics.
* Energy scales: Different energy scales are characterized by different effective physics; < 100 GeV, four distinct forces; 100–1016 GeV, standard model, SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1); 103–1016 GeV, perhaps N = 1 supersymmetry; 1016–1019 GeV, grand unified theory; > 1019 GeV, quantum gravity? string theory?
* Idea: The present theory is a beautiful framework based on quantum field theory, in which particles are just described by their couplings; They are "nothing more" than their couplings, and these are prescribed by their transformations under symmetry groups, plus some free parameters (coupling constants, masses and mixing angles); Another framework that has been used is the bootstrap theory.
* Particles: Described as (quantized) fields with values in some "internal" vector spaces, which carry (irreducible) representations of some symmetry groups; The choice of groups and spaces depends on the model, and the spaces group (known and predicted) particles into multiplets corresponding to preferred bases, the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian or some other operator.
* Analogy: The relationship between fermions/matter and bosons/quanta is like the one between hockey players and puck.
* 1995: Announcement of the discovery of the top quark in two experiments at the Tevatron at Fermilab.
* 2012: After the discovery of a Higgslike boson, the next step is to study its interactions at the LHC and possibly the ILC, LEP3, or a muon collider.
* 2013: The first three years of the LHC experiments at CERN have ended with "the nightmare scenario"; All tests confirm the Standard Model of particle physics so well that we must now search for new physics without any experimental guidance; The supersymmetric theories, a privileged candidate for new physics, are nearly excluded.
* 2015: With the upgraded LHC about to start operating, many physicists hope that it will see signs of new physics; The main type is supersymmetry, the best current standard model extension and explanation for dark matter (it also supports superstring theory); New types of Higgs particles?

General References > s.a. history of physics; types of particles.
@ Reviews: Caso et al EPJC(98); Ellis pw(99)dec; Govaerts ht/02-ln [and topology]; Álvarez-Gaumé & Lerche PRP(04) [at CERN]; Polchinski a0810-conf.
@ Articles, I: Gell-Mann in(79); Quigg SA(85)apr; Rubbia & Jacob AS(90); Miller Nat(91)jan [LEP year 1].
@ I: Zee 86; Close et al 87; Parker 87; Adair 89; Salam 90; Feldman & Steinberger SA(91)feb; Kane 95; Lederman & Schramm 95; Ne'eman & Kirsh 95; 't Hooft 96; Han 99; Rolnick 03; Veltman 03; Ford & Hewitt 04; Schumm 04; Fritzsch 05; Dosch 08; Sample 10; Lincoln 12; Griffiths 13; Gasperini 14.
@ II: Okun 85; Okun 87; Bowler 90; Icke 95; Coughlan et al 06; Close 06; Martin 09; Wolfenstein & Silva 10; Ellwanger 12 [and cosmology]; Bettini 14.
@ II, and nuclear physics: Das & Ferbel 03; Henley & García 07; Donnelly et al 17.
@ III: Källén 64; Sakurai 64; Frazer 66; Gasiorowicz 66; Cheng & O'Neill 79; Lee 81; Domokos & Kovesi-Domokos 84; Halzen & Martin 84; Gottfried & Weisskopf 84, 86; Ryder 86; Zakrzewski 87; Collins et al 89; Nachtmann 89; Martin & Shaw 92; Di Giacomo et al 94 [problems and solutions]; Shifman 99 [lectures]; Rolnick 94; Scheck 95; Roe 96; Mosel 99; Lim 00 [problems]; Shifman et al ed-05; Griffiths 08; Robinson et al a0810-ln [gauge theory, algebraic], a0908-ln [gauge theory, geometric]; Mann 09; Boyarkin 11 & 11; Fayyazuddin & Riazuddin 11; Tully 11 [in a nutshell, r AJP(12)apr]; Thomson 13 [r CP(14), PT(14)nov]; Kamal 14; Hübsch 15; Barr et al 16; Kleinert 16; Gaisser et al 16 [and cosmic rays]; Kane 17.
@ Status / remarks: issue PT(64)nov; Salam CP(60), reprint CP(09); Weisskopf Sci(79)jan, pr(79); Gell-Mann pr(80); Salam AIHP(88); Waldrop Sci(90)mar; Ross CP(93); Wilczek IJMPA(98)hp/97; Kalmus CP(00); Ahn & Cavaglià GRG(02)hp-GRF; Schmidhuber ht/02; Wilczek NPPS(03)hp/02, EPJC(04)hp-talk; CzJP(04)hp-proc, NPPS(04); Ellis & Jacob PRP(04); Murayama IJMPA(04); Perl PRL(08) [last 33 years]; Quigg SA(08)feb [upcoming LHC]; Weinberg IJMPA(08) [condensed matter and high energy]; Susskind IJMPA(08); Wilczek PoS-a1003, a1204-proc [survey]; Ellis a1504-conf; Wilczek PT(16)apr-a1503-talk [physics in 100 years]; Hossenfelder forbes(16)may; Wilczek PoS-a1610; Curtin & Sundrum PT(17)jun.
@ And cosmology: Zinkernagel SHPMP(02); Mavromatos a0708-ln; Börner GRG(09); Peter a1009-proc; Haxton a1101-talk [and laboratory astrophysics]; Ellwanger 12 [II]; Pralavorio a1311-ln; Mostepanenko G&C(16)-a1606 [status].
@ Conceptual: Marshak 93; Galison 97 [nature of discipline]; Grinbaum a0806 [on the eve of the LHC].
@ Future: Bjorken IJMPA(01); Wilczek IJMPA(01)hp-conf; Fleming et al he/01-rp; Akesson et al EPJC(07)hp/06-rp [in Europe]; Wilczek IJMPA(08); news bbc(12)sep [after the Higgs]; Dine et al a1310-rp, Rosner et al a1401-rp, Hewett et al a1401-rp, Brock et al a1401-rp, Feng et al a1401-rp, Bardeen et al a1401-rp [in the US]; Ellis a1602-proc [speculations].

Related Topics
blue bullet Specific theories: see electroweak theory; standard model and beyond.
> And quantum physics: see bell's inequality; entanglement.
> Other topics: see areas of physics [applications]; relativistic cosmology.
> Online resources: see Internet Encyclopedia of Science pages.

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