Probability in Physics  

In General > s.a. probability in quantum physics; random processes; stochastic processes.
* Remark: Physicists' use of probability and statistics is influenced by points of view derived from coin tossing or quantum mechanics, even when these don't apply.
* Role in classical mechanics: Probabilities are used in statistical mechanics, where they are essentially given by fractional phase space volumes.
@ Overviews: van Kampen LNP(97); Streater JMP(00); Bricmont LNP(01) [and Boltzmann]; Griffiths FP(03)qp/02; Maassen qp/04-ln [and open quantum systems, damped oscillator]; Khrennikov AIP(05)qp, a1410-ln.
@ General references: Feynman in(51); von Weizsäcker BJPS(73); Broyles PRD(82); Ballentine AJP(86)oct; Cohen FP(88); Gudder 88; Bitsakis & Nikolaides ed-89; Farhi et al AP(89); Pitowsky 89; Gudder FP(90); Hemion IJTP(90); Squires PLA(90); Neapolitan PhSc(92)sep; Ambegaokar 96; Basano & Ottonello AJP(96)jan [probability paradoxes]; Ismael BJPS(96); Bana & Durt FP(97)qp [Kolmogorov]; Khrennikov JMP(03)ht/01 [and contextuality]; Zurek PRL(03)qp/02 [environment-assisted invariance]; Hardy SHPMP(03) [general and quantum]; Norton PhSc(08)jan [ignorance, indifference, and probability distributions]; Werndl SHPMP(09) [on the equivalence of deterministic and indeterministic descriptions]; Albrecht & Phillips PRD(14)-a1212 [all probabilities are fundamentally quantum in origin, and multiverse]; Hung a1407 [intrinsic probability distributions for physical systems].
@ Objective vs subjective: Saunders qp/04; Srednicki PRA(05)qp; Huber BJPS(05) [as basis for scientific reasoning]; Maudlin SHPMP(07); Szabó SHPMP(07); Glynn BJPS(10)#1 [deterministic chances].
@ Interpretation: Saunders Syn(98)qp/01 [geometric]; Loewer SHPMP(01) [paradox of deterministic probabilities]; Bulinski & Khrennikov qp/02 [stochastic]; Anastopoulos AP(04)qp [and event frequencies]; Mardari qp/04 [roulette vs lottery models]; Volchan SHPMP(07)phy/06 [typicality]; Harrigan et al a0709 [ontological models for probabilistic theories]; Vervoort a1011, a1106-conf [and quantum mechanics]; Hagar & Sergioli a1303; Benedictus a1501-proc [Carl Stumpf's interpretation].
> Related topics: see Determinism; information; Predictability.

In Classical Physics > s.a. statistical mechanics; statistics [errors and fluctuations].
@ General references: Mayants 84; Ruhla 92; Collins JMP(93); Lasota & Mackey 94; Oldofredi et al a1604 [universe vs subsystems, and quantum probabilities]; Khrennikov 16 [and quantum].
@ Bayesian techniques, in cosmology: Efstathiou MNRAS(10)-a0802 [limitations]; Page a1412-proc; Trotta a1701-ln.
@ Bayesian techniques, in astrophysics: Brewer PhD(08)-a0809 [applications]; Broomhall et al MNRAS(10)-a1004 [better than frequentist approach]; Özel & Psaltis ApJ(15)-a1505 [vs frequentist, neutron star radii].
@ Bayesian techniques, other: von Toussaint RMP(11) [rev]; Lyons CP(13) [a particle physicist's perspective]; VanderPlas a1411 [vs frequentist, a Python-driven primer].
@ Related topics: Khrennikov & Kozyrev PhyA(03)qp/02 [non-commutative examples]; Aerts et al LNCS(09)-a0810 [cognition example and quantum weights]; Swendsen AJP(14)oct [unnormalized probabilities].

In Other Theories
@ General references: Chiribella EPTCS(14)-a1412 [operational-probabilistic theories]; Ozawa EPTCS(14)-a1412 [based on quantum set theory].
@ Generalized probabilistic theories: Barnum & Wilce a1205-ch; Gudder a1303 [compatibility for probabilistic theories]; Fiorini et al a1310 [and conic extensions of polytopes]; Stevens & Busch PRA(14)-a1311 [degree of incompatibility of pairs of observables and strength of violations of Bell's inequality]; Janotta & Lal EPTCS(14)-a1412 [non-locality]; Lee & Barrett NJP(15)-a1412 [computation]; Barnum et al EPTCS(15)-a1508 [resource theory of thermodynamics in general probabilistic theories]; Filippov et al a1609 [fuzziness of observables]; Svozil ch(17)-a1509; > s.a. modified quantum theory.
@ In cosmology: Curiel a1509 [difficulties with infinite-dimensional spaces]; > s.a. acceleration; anthropic reasoning; civilizations; cosmological models; dark-energy types; observational cosmology.

Other References > s.a. measurement types; particle statistics; probability theory [including complex]; physical theories.
@ And dynamics: Martin AIP(07) [gravity]; Hardy a1005 [formalism-local framework]; > s.a. causal sets; formulations of classical mechanics.
@ And decision theory: Deutsch PRS(99)qp; Wallace qp/02, SHPMP(03)qp, qp/03 [Deutsch's claim]; Mallah a0808 [criticism of approach].
@ Propensities: Suárez SHPMP(07) [and quantum mechanics]; Belnap SHPMP(07) [and branching spacetimes].
@ Negative probabilities: Bartlett PCPS(45); Mückenheim PRP(86); Feynman in(87); Scully et al PRA(94); Burgin a1008 [interpretation]; Halliwell & Yearsley PRA(13); Abramsky & Brandenburger a1401 [operational interpretation]; Acacio de Barros & Oas PS(14)-a1404-proc [and counter-factual reasoning]; Acacio de Barros et al a1412 [and the quantum double-slit experiment]; > s.a. types of measurements.
@ Axiomatic approaches: Dass a0807 ["supmech" unified axiomatization]; Whiting a1412 [Popper's formulation].
@ Conceptual: Page gq/94 [real vs mental world]; Arntzenius & Hall BJPS(03); Knuth AIP(04)phy [as "degrees of implication"]; Lange BJPS(06) [probabilities vs chances]; Martin Ent(07)phy [probability as physical motive]; Hájek BJPS(08) [arguments for/against probabilism]; Handfield 12 [chance]; Benedictus & Dieks a1306 [Reichenbach's Kantian justification for probabilistic concepts]; Roberts BJPS(13) [chance and a replacement for the Principal Principle without credence]; Johnson RIO-a1404 [descriptive statistics of physical data as the foundation of physical probability].
@ Related topics: Caticha PLA(98)qp, PRA(98)qp [unitarity and consistency]; Youssef ht/01 [exotic probabilities]; Gyenis & Rédei FP(04) [and causality, common cause]; Marlow qp/05/FPL [and Lorentz invariance]; > s.a. causality.
@ Physics in the news: news npr(10)oct [physicists and poker playing]

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