Pi, π |

**In General**
> s.a. Euler's Equation; series.

* __Value__: The transcendental number

π = 3.1415 92653 58979 32384 62643 38327 95028 84197 16939 93751 05820 ....

* __Approximations__: Archimedes' approximation,
3 + 10/71 < π < 3 + 1/7; In 1655 the English mathematician John Wallis published a book
in which he derived a formula for pi as the product of an infinite series of ratios,

π/2 = (2 · 2 / 1 · 3) (4 · 4 / 3 · 5) (6 · 6 / 5 · 7) · · · ,

where the terms are of the form \((2j)\,(2j)\,/\,(2j-1)\,(2j+1)\) with \(j\)
from 1 to infinity; Also, π equals 22/7 to within a 0.04% error!

* __Properties__: Related to the
quadrature of the circle; Its digits pass tests for randomness; Thought to
be a normal number; 2001, D Bailey & R Crandall showed connection to
chaos theory.

* __Integral representations__:
It appears in

@ __General references__: issue SA(88)feb; Blatner 99;
Posamentier & Lehmann 04;
Adrian 06 [I].

@ __Statistical estimation__: Bloch & Dressler AJP(99)apr;
> s.a. statistical geometry [Buffon's needle].

@ __Wallis' formula__: Friedmann & Hagen JMP(15)
+ news PhysOrg(15)nov,
pt(15)nov [and quantum physics];
Chashchina & Silagadze PLA(17)-a1704 [comments];
Cortese & García JGP(17)-a1709 [from the harmonic oscillator].

@ __Related topics__: Jáuregui & Tsallis JMP(10)-a1004,
Amdeberhan et al JMP(12)
[representation in terms of *q*-exponential function, and generalizations].

> __Approximations__:
see Wikipedia page.

**History and Curiosities**

* __History__: Until the V century, the best
value was Archimedes' approximation; 1665, Wallis formula; 1706, Name given by William
Jones (and 100 digits calculated), from the initial of "perimetron" –
later used by Euler; 1844, Johann Dase of Hamburg calculated (in his head!) 205 digits;
1882, Proved to the transcendental; 1897, The Indiana state House of Representatives
passed a bill decreeing that π = 4.0 – but the bill didn't make it past the
Senate; 1949, ENIAC calculated 2037 digits in 70 hours; 1999, over \(6 \times 10^9\)
digits calculated by computer, using Ramanujan's work; 2001, \(5 \times 10^{11}\)
digits known.

* __Memorization__: J Conway memorized
many digits; 2000, a ND kid memorized more than 5000; But the records are 40,000
for Hideaki Tomoyori (1987, in 17 hr 21 min), and 42,194 for Hiroyuki Goto (1995,
in 9 hr 21 min).

* __Related facts__: March 14th
is celebrated as Pi Day.

@ __References__:
news ns(10)mar [interesting facts];
news ns(12)mar [US ruling that the idea of making music based on π cannot be copyrighted];
news sn(18)mar [in support of using τ = 2π instead].

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send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 11 dec 2018