Interstellar Matter  

* Observation: One way to detect it is to look for the presence of anomalous lines in stellar spectra.
@ General references: Reynolds SA(02)jan; Haynes AIP(08)-a0806, Giovanelli AIP(08)-a0806, AIP(08)-a0806 [HI astronomy and cosmology]; Wolfire et al ApJ-a1004 [dark molecular gas]; Habibi et al A&A(11)-a1010 [galactic hidden gas].
@ Molecular clouds: de Vega et al Nat(96)ap, PRD(96)ap [fractal structure]; Field et al MNRAS-a1106 [equilibrium and external pressure]; Combes a1110-proc [and star formation]; Clark et al MNRAS(12)-a1204 [simulations of formation]; Ragan et al A&A(14)-a1403 [molecular filaments]; Zasov & Kasparova ASS(14)-a1407 [lifetimes]; Inutsuka et al A&A(15)-a1505 [formation and destruction]; Nakanishi & Sofue PASJ(15)-a1511 [3D distribution].
@ Related topics: Parley & Patterson Nat(95)dec [100-kyr periodicity in 3He flux and Earth climate];

* Measurement: NASA's Stardust probe spent nearly 200 days with its dust collector facing the interstellar wind, and the collector was later retrieved.
@ Reviews: Bussoletti RNC(85); Witt IAU-ap/99, JGR-ap/99-conf [properties, models]; Greenberg SA(00)dec; Erlykin & Wolfendale PS(01); Krügel 03 [r PT(04)jan]; Draine ARAA(03)ap, ap/03-in; Dwek AIP(05)ap/04; Grün et al Icarus(05) [dust astronomy]; Li JPCS(05)ap; Swami 05; Landgraf et al ap/06-conf; Krügel 07 [r PT(08)oct]; Compiègne ASP-a1104; Voshchinnikov JQSRT-a1206 [interstellar extinction and polarization]; Zhukovska & Henning a1407-PoS [life cycles]; Davies et al PASP(17)-a1609 [DustPedia]; Gontcharov ASP-a1707 [in our galaxy].
@ Observation on Earth: Taylor et al Nat(96)mar + pn(96)apr.
@ In the solar system: Landgraf & Grün LNP(98)ap/97 [measurement]; Musser SA(03)may; Krüger et al SSR(07)-a0706 [measurement]; Mann et al PPCF(10)-a1008, PRP(14); news NYT(10)aug, news pt(14)aug [interstellar grains captured by Stardust spacecraft]; Strub et al ApJ(15)-a1508 [Ulysses measurements].
@ Presolar grains: Lugaro 05; Lodders & Amari CdE-ap/05; Pepin et al ApJ(11)-a1204 [from novae].
@ In the Milky Way galaxy: Dwek et al a0903-conf [and other galaxies, evolution]; Green et al ApJ(15)-a1507 [3D map].
@ In other galaxies: Holwerda & Keel IAU(16)-a1605 [overlapping galaxy technique].
@ In the early universe: Nozawa et al ASP-a0812; Mattsson a1505/MNRAS [sudden appearance].
@ Other related topics: Gordon ASP-ap/03 [scattering properties]; Zubko et al ApJS(04)ap/03 [models]; Li AIP(05)ap [absorption/emission]; Lazarian ap/06-conf [alignment]; Socrates & Draine ApJL(09)-a0812 [scattering off large grains]; Pagani et al Sci(11)sep-a1110 [large grains]; Wickramasinghe JoC-a1112; news at(12)apr [grains produced by asymptotic giant stars]; > s.a. gas [simulations of dust-gas mixtures].

* Distance determination: For dark nebulae, use a diagram of star count vs apparent magnitude.
Types: From shape/origin, Planetary nebulae (gaseous shells expanding from hot blue stars), Diffuse nebulae (supernova remnants or more chaotic; population I, on the galactic plane); From radiation, Emission nebulae (around hot stars), Reflection nebulae (around cold stars), Dark nebulae (for example, Coalsack).
* Herbig-Haro objects: Bright nebulous regions of gas and dust often present in T star associations (T Tauri itself is inside one).
@ Planetary nebulae: Iben PRP(95); Gurzadyan 97; Balick & Frank SA(04)jul; Soker PASP(06)ap/05 [and magnetic fields]; Weidmann & Diaz PASP-ap/05 [spatial orientation]; Zijlstra RMAA-a1506 [rev].
@ Other nebulae: Bühler & Blandford RPP(14)-a1309 [Crab pulsar and nebula].

References > s.a. astronomical objects; Intergalactic Matter; milky way galaxy [including high-velocity clouds].
@ General: Spitzer 82; Kitchin 87; Ferrière RMP(01) [in the Milky Way galaxy]; Scannapieco et al ApJ(12)-a1112 [turbulent support]; Burton et al a1307 [report]; Klessen et al a1412-ln [physical processes].
@ Chemistry: Bernstein et al SA(99)jul [complex organic molecules]; Jenkins in(04)ap/03 [abundances]; Spaans IAU(08)-a0808; Hartquist et al a0812-proc [astrochemistry]; Oberg et al IAU-a1107 [ices]; De Becker BSRSL-a1305 [astrochemistry, overview].
@ Turbulence: Dutta et al ASP-a0905; Wakker et al ApJ(11)-a1012; Falceta-Gonçalves a1102-proc [rev]; news at(11)oct [observation]; Falceta-Gonçalves et al NLPG(14)-a1404 [rev].
@ Local ISM: Ferlet A&A(99)ap; Frisch AS(00)ap/99, ap/02-conf, AIP(04)ap; Grenier ap/04-proc [Gould belt]; Vahia ap/04; Mueller et al ApJ(06)ap [variations]; Redfield ASP-ap/06; Frisch & Slavin ap/06-proc; news NASA(09)dec [Local Interstellar Cloud, or "Local Fluff"]; Crawford AAn(11)-a1010 [in the nearest 15 ly, and future interstellar missions]; Frisch et al ARAA(11); Gry & Jenkins A&A(14)-a1404; Redfield & Linsky ApJ(15)-a1509 [morphology]; > s.a. solar system [Local Bubble].
@ In other galaxies: Veilleux et al ARAA(05)ap [galactic winds]; Haffner et al RMP(09) [warm ionized interstellar medium]; Greve a0901-proc [distant galaxies]; Hopkins et al MNRAS(12)-a1206 [star-forming galaxies]; Lacki a1308 [chaotic starburst interstellar medium]; van der Tak IAU-a1511 [water]; > s.a. galaxies [winds].

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