Light |

**In General** > s.a. electromagnetism / causality [light
cone]; physical constants [speed].

* __History__: Early ideas
– Emission theory (light from our eyes shines upon the objects
we see), believed by Plato, Euclid and Ptolemy, and experimentally proved wring
by al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham; 1637 – Descartes,
particles; 1678 – Huygens, waves, that slow down in refraction; 1704 – Newton,
particles that speed up in refraction (it was assumed that light waves would
be longitudinal, and did not explain polarization); 1801 – Young, waves,
from interference (and introduced idea of transverse waves); 1850 – Foucault,
waves, from slowdown in refraction; 1905 – Planck/Einstein, photons;
{# Grimaldi, Herschel}.

@ __General references, I__: in Lightman 86, p137 ff; Sobel 87; Perkowitz ThSc(93)mar
[beyond the blue]; Lynch & Livingston 95; Silverman 98; García-Matos & Torner 15; Wiseman a1510-PS [fundamental features that distinguish laser light from thermal light].

@ __General references, II/III__: Breslin & Montwill 13; Pathak & Ghatak a1705 [rev, classical and non-classical, and applications].

@ __History__: Zajonc 93; Perkowitz 96 [and art]; Park 97; Shea AJP(98)jul
[Rømer's experiment]; Potter a0811 [Lorenz's
model]; Al-Khalili bbc(09)jan [al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham]; Sparavigna IJS-a1302 [reflection and refraction in Robert Grosseteste's treatise]; Bermudez et al FMO(16)-a1506-proc; news APS(16)jul [Fresnel's work]; > s.a. history of physics [electromagnetism].

@ __Nature__: Newton PTRS(1672), reprinted AJP(93)feb
[colors]; Young PTRS(1802)
[wave theory]; > s.a. spin models.

**Classical Effects and Properties** > s.a. aharonov-bohm
effect; diffraction;
interference; optics;
phase; polarization; radiation.

* __Talbot effect__: The
repeated self-imaging of a diffraction grating, reported in 1836 by Henry Fox
Talbot, rediscovered by Lord Rayleigh in 1881; Explained by near-field interference
[@ news pw(01)jun].

@ __Orbital angular momentum__: Allen et al PRA(92); Leach et al PRL(02);
Padgett et al PT(04)may;
Tiwari qp/06; Vitullo et al PRL(17)-a1607; > s.a. doppler effect.

@ __Related topics__: NS(90)sep1, 40-44 [rainbows];
Harris CP(95) [interference and
fluctuations, speckle]; Sanz & Miret-Artés JChemP(07)qp [Talbot
effect in quantum mechanics, in terms of Bohmian mechanics]; Götte et al PRS(07)
[dragging by a rotating medium].

> __Related topics__: see Caustics; Coherence; energy-momentum; Rabi Model [coupling to matter]; Rainbow; thermodynamic systems [thermal light].

**Anomalous Propagation** > s.a. dispersion; photon; wave
phenomena.

* __Scharnhorst effect__:
Superluminal propagation in matter obtained by suppressing vacuum modes (> see casimir effect).

* __Slowdown__: 1997, 17
m/s in BEC; 2000, 1 mph in BEC; 2001, Light effectively slowed down to *v*_{g} =
0, its information stored in collective spin states of a dilute Rb gas, with
the possibility of reading it out later; However, most light packets lose
their shape when their speed is decreased, which limits their applicability
in telecommunications; 2004, optical solitons made to move at 10^{–6} *c*.

* __Standstill__: 2002, Achieved in crystals, can be useful for high-density
information storage for quantum computing.

@ __Superluminal__: Valentini PLA(89);
news Nat(90)mar; Scharnhorst
PLB(90);
Barton PLB(90);
Wang et al Nat(00)jul;
Jackson et al PRA(01)phy/00;
Shore gq/03-proc,
NPB(07)ht [from
quantum field theory effects]; Chen et al PRA(08)-a0807 [control];
Cialdi et al NJP(09)-a0904 [single
photon]; news(11)jul, sci(11)aug; Weinstein a1203 [discussion between Einstein and Wien].

@ __Slowdown__: Vestergaard Hau et al Nat(99)feb
[17 m/s in BEC]; Fiurasek et al PRA(02)qp/00;
Phillips et al PRL(01)
+ pn(01)jan;
news pn(07)may.

@ __Standstill, storage__: Vestergaard Hau SA(01)jul;
Bajcsy et al Nat(03)qp [pulses
in
Rb]; Tanji et al PRL(09)
+ Laurat Phy(09)jul
[and quantum information networks]; Havey CP(09) [in ultracold and high-density
atomic gases]; de Riedmatten Phy(13), Heinze et al PRL(13) + news ns(13)jul [long-term storage]; Wiersma Phy(15)jun [trapping in Lieb lattices]; > s.a. photon.

@ __Accelerating beams__: news pw(12)nov [light following curved trajectories in free space]; Bekenstein et al PRX(14) [accelerating wave packets in curved space].

**Other Propagation Effects** > s.a. black-hole analogs [optical]; gravitational phenomenology; photon phenomenology; Reflection; refraction.

* __Speed__: Notice that the invariance of the speed of light only applies to plane waves; Spatial structure in a beam can reduce the speed even in vacuum.

@ __Various materials__: Neutze & Stedman PRA(98)
[accelerating media]; Ward CP(99)
[photonic materials]; Novello & Salim PRD(01)
[non-linear dielectric, effective metric]; Michinel et al PRE(02)
+ pn(02)jul
["light droplets"];
Ramakrishna & Armour AJP(03)jun-cm/02 [absorbing
media]; Li & Sun CTP(06)qp/05 [3+1-level
atoms]; Garanovich et al PRP(12) [in modulated photonic lattices]; Popoff et al PRL(14) [control of light transmission through disordered media].

@ __Inhomogeneous__: Piwnicki
IJMPA(02) [geometrical].

@ __Scattering__: Lagendijk & van Tiggelen PRP(96)
[multiple];
Berman CP(08) [by atoms and vapors]; Bini et al EPL(13)-a1408 [by radiation fields].

@ __Interaction with matter__: Baragiola PhD-a1408; López Carreño & Laussy PRA(16)-a1601 [quantum light and harmonic oscillators].

@ __In curved spacetime__: Batic et al PRD(15)-a1412 [deflection angle, lensing, bound states]; > s.a. electromagnetism in curved spacetimes; lensing; matter
and radiation near black holes; perturbed FLRW.

@ __Gravitational interactions__: Faraoni & Dumse GRG(99)gq/98; Kopeikin & Korobkov in(14)gq/05 [propagation in the field of radiative gravitational multipoles]; Vilasi
et al CQG(11)-a1009 [with gravity as a wave and as a particle]; Rätzel et al NJP(16)-a1511 [gravitational field of a laser pulse].

@ __In cosmology__: Ellis et al CQG(98)
[lensing and caustic effects]; Mustapha et al CQG(98)
[distance-redshift]; More et al ApJ(09)-a0810 [transparency]; Räsänen JCAP(09)-a0812,
JCAP(10)-a0912 [clumping
and distance-redshift]; Maziashvili PRD(12)-a1206 [stochastic background, and light incoherence rate]; Fleury a1511-PhD [inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies];
> s.a. averaging in cosmology.

@ __Related topics__: Punzi et al CQG(09)-a0711 [in
area-metric background]; Giovannini et al Sci(15)feb-a1411 [speed *v* < *c* in free space].

> __Gravity-related topics__: see doubly
special relativity; observational
cosmology [birefringence]; tests of general relativity with light.

**Quantum Aspects** > s.a. photons; QED.

* __History__: The theoretical basis for the full quantum characterization of light was introduced by Glauber in 1963.

* __Description__: As shown
by Białynicki-Birula, optics also admits a hydrodynamical formulation
in terms of photon trajectories when the existence of a wave function for photons
is assumed, analogous to the pilot-wave description of the
behavior of massive particles.

@ __General references__: Glauber PR(63); Branczyk et al a1605 [thermal light as a mixture of sets of pulses]; Kedia et al a1706 [knotted states].

@ __Coupling to matter__: Sørensen &
Sørensen PRA(08)-a0711,
Hammerer et al RMP(10)-a0807 [ensemble of identical atoms]; Picón et al NJP(10)-a1005 [and atoms, angular momentum
exchange]; De Liberato PRL(14)-a1308 [strong-coupling regime with matter]; Lachman et al SR-a1605 [from many independent emitters]; Salasnich 17 [and matter]; Obšil et al a1705 [from a large number of trapped ions].

@ __Non-classical nature__: Steudle et al PRA(12)-a1107 [experiment]; Dodel et al a1611 [witnessing with the human eye].

@ __Degree of non-classicality__:
Mraz et al PRA(14);
Kühn & Vogel PRA(14);
Lee et al PRA(16)-a1606.

> __Specific aspects__: see localization;
photon phenomenology [including entanglement];
quantum-gravity effects; radiation.

> __Related topics__: see Chemical
Potential; Hanbury Brown-Twiss Effect; quantum chaos;
Solid
Light; Superfluids; Wave-Particle Duality.

**Applications** > s.a. earth [atmospheric
optics]; optical
technology [including lasers]; Spectroscopy.

@ __Colors__: Weinberg GRG(76);
Pease AJP(80)nov [RL];
Rossotti 88; Perkowitz ThSc(91)may;
Gage 93, 99; Nassau 01; Kentsis phy/05 [Goethe's
theory]; Sparavigna IJS(14)-a1212 [Robert Grosseteste on the nature of colors]; Mota & Lopes dos Santos PhysEd(14) [additive and subtractive mixtures]; Woolfson 16 [popularization].

@ __Art__: Rossing & Chiaverina 99 [II, introductory physics for visual
arts];
Taft & Mayer 00 [painting].

@ __Other practical aspects__: Woolfson 11 [imaging].

> __Online resources__: see lightsources.org website.

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send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 2
aug 2017