Light |

**In General**
> s.a. electromagnetism / causality
[light cone]; physical constants [speed].

* __History__: Early ideas –
Emission theory (light from our eyes shines upon the objects we see),
believed by Plato, Euclid and Ptolemy, and experimentally proved wrong by
al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham; 1637 – Descartes, particles; 1678 –
Huygens, waves, that slow down in refraction; 1704 – Newton, particles
that speed up in refraction (it was assumed that light waves would be longitudinal,
and did not explain polarization); 1801 – Young, waves, from interference
(and introduced idea of transverse waves); 1850 – Foucault, waves, from
slowdown in refraction; 1905 – Planck/Einstein, photons; {# Grimaldi, Herschel}.

@ __General references, I__: in Lightman 86, p137 ff;
Sobel 87;
Perkowitz ThSc(93)mar [beyond the blue];
Lynch & Livingston 95;
Silverman 98;
García-Matos & Torner 15;
Wiseman a1510-PS
[fundamental features that distinguish laser light from thermal light].

@ __General references, II/III__:
Breslin & Montwill 13;
Pathak & Ghatak a1705
[rev, classical and non-classical, and applications].

@ __History__: Zajonc 93;
Perkowitz 96 [and art];
Park 97;
Shea AJP(98)jul [Rømer's experiment];
Potter a0811 [Lorenz's model];
Al-Khalili bbc(09)jan [al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham];
Sparavigna IJS-a1302
[reflection and refraction in Robert Grosseteste's treatise];
Bermudez et al FMO(16)-a1506-proc;
news APS(16)jul [Fresnel's work];
Yajnik BIPA-a1905 [Sudarshan's diagonal representation];
> s.a. history of physics [electromagnetism].

@ __Nature__: Newton PTRS(1672),
reprinted AJP(93)feb [colors];
Young PTRS(1802) [wave theory];
> s.a. spin models.

**Classical Effects and Properties**
> s.a. aharonov-bohm effect; diffraction;
interference; optics; phase;
polarization; radiation.

* __Talbot effect__: The repeated
self-imaging of a diffraction grating, reported in 1836 by Henry Fox Talbot,
rediscovered by Lord Rayleigh in 1881; Explained by near-field interference
[@ news pw(01)jun].

@ __Orbital angular momentum__:
Allen et al PRA(92);
Leach et al PRL(02);
Padgett et al PT(04)may;
Tiwari qp/06;
Vitullo et al PRL(17)-a1607;
> s.a. doppler effect.

@ __Related topics__: NS(90)sep1, 40-44 [rainbows];
Harris CP(95) [interference and fluctuations, speckle];
Sanz & Miret-Artés JChemP(07)qp [Talbot effect in quantum mechanics, in terms of Bohmian mechanics];
Götte et al PRS(07) [dragging by a rotating medium].

> __Related topics__: see Caustics;
Coherence; energy-momentum tensor;
Rabi Model [coupling to matter]; Rainbow;
thermodynamic systems [thermal light].

**Anomalous Propagation** > s.a. dispersion;
photon; wave phenomena.

* __Scharnhorst effect__:
Superluminal propagation in matter obtained by suppressing vacuum modes
(> see casimir effect).

* __Slowdown__: 1997, 17 m/s
in BEC; 2000, 1 mph in BEC; 2001, Light effectively slowed down to
*v*_{g} = 0, its information stored
in collective spin states of a dilute Rb gas, with the possibility of reading
it out later; However, most light packets lose their shape when their speed
is decreased, which limits their applicability in telecommunications; 2004,
optical solitons made to move at 10^{−6} *c*.

* __Standstill__: 2002, Achieved in
crystals, can be useful for high-density information storage for quantum computing.

@ __Superluminal__:
Valentini PLA(89);
news Nat(90)mar; Scharnhorst
PLB(90);
Barton PLB(90);
Wang et al Nat(00)jul;
Jackson et al PRA(01)phy/00;
Shore gq/03-proc,
NPB(07)ht [from quantum field theory effects];
Chen et al PRA(08)-a0807 [control];
Cialdi et al NJP(09)-a0904 [single photon];
news(11)jul,
sci(11)aug;
Weinstein a1203
[discussion between Einstein and Wien].

@ __Slowdown__:
Vestergaard Hau et al Nat(99)feb [17 m/s in BEC];
Fiurasek et al PRA(02)qp/00;
Phillips et al PRL(01)
+ pn(01)jan;
news pn(07)may.

@ __Standstill, storage__: Vestergaard Hau SA(01)jul;
Bajcsy et al Nat(03)qp [pulses in Rb];
Tanji et al PRL(09)
+ Laurat Phy(09)jul
[and quantum information networks];
Havey CP(09)
[in ultracold and high-density atomic gases];
de Riedmatten Phy(13),
Heinze et al PRL(13)
+ news ns(13)jul [long-term storage];
Wiersma Phy(15)jun [trapping in Lieb lattices];
> s.a. photon.

@ __Accelerating beams__:
news pw(12)nov [light following curved trajectories in free space];
Bekenstein et al PRX(14) [accelerating wave packets in curved space].

**Other Propagation Effects**
> s.a. black-hole analogs [optical]; gravitational
phenomenology; photon phenomenology; Reflection;
refraction.

* __Speed__: Notice that
the invariance of the speed of light only applies to plane waves;
Spatial structure in a beam can reduce the speed even in vacuum.

@ __Various materials__:
Neutze & Stedman PRA(98) [accelerating media];
Ward CP(99) [photonic materials];
Novello & Salim PRD(01) [non-linear dielectric, effective metric];
Michinel et al PRE(02)
+ pn(02)jul ["light droplets"];
Ramakrishna & Armour AJP(03)jun-cm/02 [absorbing media];
Li & Sun CTP(06)qp/05 [3+1-level atoms];
Garanovich et al PRP(12) [in modulated photonic lattices];
Popoff et al PRL(14) [control of light transmission through disordered media].

@ __Inhomogeneous__:
Piwnicki IJMPA(02) [geometrical].

@ __Scattering__:
Lagendijk & van Tiggelen PRP(96) [multiple];
Berman CP(08) [by atoms and vapors];
Bini et al EPL(13)-a1408 [by radiation fields];
Liu Phy(19) [superscattering, with metamaterial].

@ __Interaction with matter__: Baragiola PhD-a1408;
López Carreño & Laussy PRA(16)-a1601 [quantum light and harmonic oscillators].

@ __In curved spacetime__: Batic et al PRD(15)-a1412 [deflection angle, lensing, bound states];
> s.a. electromagnetism in curved spacetimes; lensing;
matter and radiation near black holes; perturbed FLRW.

@ __Gravitational interactions__: Faraoni & Dumse GRG(99)gq/98;
Kopeikin & Korobkov in(14)gq/05 [propagation in the field of radiative gravitational multipoles];
Vilasi et al CQG(11)-a1009 [with gravity as a wave and as a particle];
Rätzel et al NJP(16)-a1511 [gravitational field of a laser pulse].

@ __In cosmology__:
Ellis et al CQG(98) [lensing and caustic effects];
Mustapha et al CQG(98) [distance-redshift];
More et al ApJ(09)-a0810 [transparency];
Räsänen JCAP(09)-a0812,
JCAP(10)-a0912 [clumping and distance-redshift];
Maziashvili PRD(12)-a1206 [stochastic background, and light incoherence rate];
Fleury a1511-PhD [inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies];
> s.a. averaging in cosmology.

@ __Related topics__: Punzi et al CQG(09)-a0711 [in area-metric background];
Giovannini et al Sci(15)feb-a1411 [speed *v* < *c* in free space].

> __Gravity-related topics__: see doubly special relativity;
observational cosmology [birefringence]; tests of general
relativity with light.

**Quantum Aspects**
> s.a. photons; QED.

* __History__: The theoretical
basis for the full quantum characterization of light was introduced by
Glauber in 1963.

* __Description__: As shown by
Białynicki-Birula, optics also admits a hydrodynamical formulation
in terms of photon trajectories when the existence of a wave function
for photons is assumed, analogous to the pilot-wave description of the
behavior of massive particles.

@ __General references__: Glauber PR(63);
Branczyk et al a1605 [thermal light as a mixture of sets of pulses];
Kedia et al a1706 [knotted states];
Bradler et al a1810 [quantum states and graph isomorphism].

@ __Coupling to matter__: Sørensen & Sørensen PRA(08)-a0711,
Hammerer et al RMP(10)-a0807 [ensemble of identical atoms];
Picón et al NJP(10)-a1005 [and atoms, angular momentum exchange];
De Liberato PRL(14)-a1308 [strong-coupling regime with matter];
Lachman et al SR-a1605 [from many independent emitters];
Salasnich 17 [and matter];
Obšil et al a1705 [from a large number of trapped ions];
Zubizarreta et al a1901 [photon statistics].

@ __Non-classical nature__: Steudle et al PRA(12)-a1107 [experiment];
Dodel et al a1611 [witnessing with the human eye].

@ __Degree of non-classicality__: Mraz et al PRA(14);
Kühn & Vogel PRA(14);
Lee et al PRA(16)-a1606;
> s.a. Coherence.

> __Specific aspects__: see localization;
photon phenomenology [including entanglement];
quantum-gravity effects; radiation.

> __Related topics__: see Chemical
Potential; Hanbury Brown-Twiss Effect; quantum
chaos; Solid Light; Superfluids;
Wave-Particle Duality.

**Applications** > s.a. earth [atmospheric optics];
optical technology [including lasers]; Spectroscopy.

@ __Colors__: Weinberg GRG(76);
Pease AJP(80)nov [RL];
Rossotti 88; Perkowitz ThSc(91)may;
Gage 93, 99;
Nassau 01;
Kentsis phy/05 [Goethe's theory];
Sparavigna IJS(14)-a1212 [Robert Grosseteste on the nature of colors];
Mota & Lopes dos Santos PhysEd(14) [additive and subtractive mixtures];
Woolfson 16 [popularization].

@ __Art__: Rossing & Chiaverina 99 [II, introductory physics for visual arts];
Taft & Mayer 00 [painting].

@ __Other practical aspects__:
Woolfson 11 [imaging].

> __Online resources__:
see lightsources.org website.

main page
– abbreviations
– journals – comments
– other sites – acknowledgements

send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 28 may 2019