In General > s.a. gauge transformations.
* History: XIX century pioneers of the study of electromagnetic radiation included Herschel, Melloni and Draper.
@ General references: Dirac PRS(27) [emission and absorption, quantum]; Heald & Marion 95; Kleppner PT(05)feb [Einstein's 1917 paper]; Milonni PRP(76) [non-relativistic, semiclassical + QED aspects]; Boyer AJP(11)nov [zero-point radiation and classical physics].
@ Observer dependence: Eriksen & Grøn AJP(87)apr [Lorentz-invariant]; Nikolić gq/99 [classical and quantum]; > s.a. quantum field theory effects in curved spacetime.
@ Related topics: Schützhold et al PRA(98)qp [non-constant background, quantum]; Serreau JHEP(04) [quantum, out of equilibrium]; Chang & Leonelli SHPSA(05) [ontology, unified vs pluralistic theory]; Chiarelli a1503 [for particles with rest mass].
blue bullet Non-electromagnetic types of radiation: see gravitational radiation; sound [acoustic radiation].

Radiation Mechanisms > s.a. acceleration radiation [including Bremsstrahlung]; casimir effect [dynamical]; Cerenkov Effect; thermal radiation.
* Inhomogeneous media: Charged particles radiate when they propagate in inhomogeneous media, even at constant velocities; Examples are Ginzburg and Frank's transition radiation, by a particle crossing a boundary between materials with different indices of refraction, and diffraction radiation near finite-size objects.
* Lilienfeld transition radiation: Radiation originating from the time rate of change of the virtual dipole between charged particles and their image charges that forms as the charged particles move near a conducting surface; Not to be confused with (Ginzburg and Frank) transition radiation.
* Diffraction radiation: Electromagnetic radiation by a charge moving near a metallic grating; Similar in origin to Lilienfeld transition radiation.
@ Particle + conductor radiation: Lilienfeld PZ(19), Rabinowitz PT(89)jun-phy/03 [Lilienfeld transition radiation]; > s.a. branes [diffraction radiation].
@ Related topics: Diedrich & Walther PRL(87) [resonance fluorescence of single ion].
> Related topics: see gravitating objects and particles/fields; molecular physics; Spontaneous Emission; Stimulated Emission.

Interaction and Effects of Radiation > s.a. light.
* Radiation pressure: Related to the energy density u by P = u/3.
* Mössbauer effect: Recoilless emission/absorption of gamma rays by nuclei in solids, in which the whole bulk takes up the momentum so a negligible amount of energy is given to the solid and the photon energy actually is the transition energy; Applications: Used in spectroscopy, can be done when the photon energy is not too high (up to tens of keV, 57Fe with 14 keV works well) so that the process can actually be recoilless and not produce phonons; Ether drift experiments for special relativity, gravitational redshift.
@ General references: Van Vleck & Huber RMP(77) [with atoms and molecules]; Brivio et al RNC(00); Gabovich & Gabovich EJP(07) [mass of radiation in a cavity]; Nikjoo et al 12 [interaction with matter]; Leroy & Rancoita 16 [with matter, and detection].
@ Mössbauer effect: Vandegrift & Fultz AJP(98)jul [from Schrödinger equation]; Corda AP(15)-a1502 [in a rotating system, and general relativity].
@ Radiation pressure: Wu & Ford PRD(01)qp/00 [vacuum fluctuations]; Rothman & Boughn AJP(09)feb [argument]; Mungan AJP(09)nov; Cataldo & García PLB(14)-a1405 [in 2+1 dimensions].
> Propagation effects: see Dichroism; diffraction; dispersion; Reflection; Refraction; wave phenomena [evanescent].

Radiation Damping, Radiation Reaction and All That > see arrow of time; self-force.

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