Radiation |

**In General** > s.a. gauge transformations.

* __History__: XIX century
pioneers of the study of electromagnetic radiation included Herschel, Melloni and Draper.

@ __General references__:
Dirac PRS(27) [emission and absorption, quantum];
Heald & Marion 95;
Kleppner PT(05)feb [Einstein's 1917 paper];
Milonni PRP(76) [non-relativistic, semiclassical + QED aspects];
Boyer AJP(11)nov [zero-point radiation and classical physics];
Rovenchak & Krynytskyi AJP(18)oct [electromagnetic, beyond the dipole approximation].

@ __Observer dependence__: Eriksen & Grøn AJP(87)apr [Lorentz-invariant];
Nikolić gq/99 [classical and quantum];
> s.a. quantum field theory effects in curved spacetime.

@ __Related topics__: Schützhold et al PRA(98)qp [non-constant background, quantum];
Serreau JHEP(04) [quantum, out of equilibrium];
Chang & Leonelli SHPSA(05) [ontology, unified vs pluralistic theory];
Chiarelli a1503 [for particles with rest mass].

__Non-electromagnetic types of radiation__:
see gravitational radiation; sound [acoustic radiation].

**Radiation Mechanisms** > s.a. acceleration radiation [including Bremsstrahlung];
casimir effect [dynamical]; Cerenkov Effect;
thermal radiation.

* __Inhomogeneous media__:
Charged particles radiate when they propagate in inhomogeneous media, even at constant
velocities; Examples are Ginzburg and Frank's transition radiation, by a particle crossing
a boundary between materials with different indices of refraction, and diffraction radiation
near finite-size objects.

* __Lilienfeld transition radiation__:
Radiation originating from the time rate of change of the virtual dipole between charged
particles and their image charges that forms as the charged particles move near a conducting
surface; Not to be confused with (Ginzburg and Frank) transition radiation.

* __Diffraction radiation__: Electromagnetic
radiation by a charge moving near a metallic grating; Similar in origin to Lilienfeld
transition radiation.

@ __Particle + conductor radiation__: Lilienfeld PZ(19),
Rabinowitz PT(89)jun-phy/03 [Lilienfeld transition radiation];
> s.a. branes [diffraction radiation].

@ __Related topics__: Diedrich & Walther PRL(87) [resonance fluorescence of single ion].

> __Related topics__: see gravitating
objects and particles/fields; molecular physics;
Spontaneous Emission; Stimulated Emission.

**Interaction and Effects of Radiation** > s.a. light.

* __Radiation pressure__: Related
to the energy density *u* by *P* = *u*/3.

* __Mössbauer effect__:
Recoilless emission/absorption of gamma rays by nuclei in solids, in which the whole
bulk takes up the momentum so a negligible amount of energy is given to the solid
and the photon energy actually is the transition energy; __Applications__:
Used in spectroscopy, can be done when the photon energy is not too high (up
to tens of keV, ^{57}Fe with 14 keV works well)
so that the process can actually be recoilless and not produce phonons; Ether
drift experiments for special relativity, gravitational redshift.

@ __General references__: Van Vleck & Huber RMP(77) [with atoms and molecules];
Brivio et al RNC(00);
Gabovich & Gabovich EJP(07) [mass of radiation in a cavity];
Nikjoo et al 12 [interaction with matter];
Leroy & Rancoita 16 [with matter, and detection].

@ __Mössbauer effect__: Vandegrift & Fultz AJP(98)jul [from Schrödinger equation];
Corda AP(15)-a1502 [in a rotating system, and general relativity].

@ __Radiation pressure__: Wu & Ford PRD(01)qp/00 [vacuum fluctuations];
Rothman & Boughn AJP(09)feb [argument];
Mungan AJP(09)nov;
Cataldo & García PLB(14)-a1405 [in 2+1 dimensions].

> __Propagation effects__:
see Dichroism; diffraction;
dispersion; Reflection;
Refraction; wave phenomena [evanescent].

**Radiation Damping, Radiation Reaction and All That** > see
arrow of time; self-force.

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