Observational Cosmology  

In General > s.a. astronomy [observation methods, distance ladder]; astrophysics; cosmological models and standard cosmological model.
* Status: GAMA survey of over 200,000 galaxies across a broad wavelength range concludes that the energy output is decreasing.
* Observational missions: 1989, COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) launched; 1992, First anisotropy reported by COBE; 2001, WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe), launched; 2009, ESA's Planck launched, to measure the cmb over a broad range of far-infrared wavelengths, and to an unprecedented accuracy.
@ Books: Bothun 98 [III]; Serjeant 10.
@ Reviews: Baryshev et al ViA(94)ap/95; Bahcall ap/95-conf; Bernardeau ap/98-ln; Lahav ap/98-proc [galaxy surveys]; Peebles ap/98-PASP, ap/99-in, IJMPA(01)01-proc; Turner ap/98-proc, & Tyson RMP(99)ap; Krauss ap/01-conf; Balbi ap/01-conf; Lineweaver ap/01-conf; Sarkar hp/02-conf; Tegmark Nat(02)jan, LNP(04)ap/02; Peebles ap/02-proc; Reid et al ap/02; Melchiorri RNC(03) [precision cosmology]; Ostriker & Souradeep Pra(04)ap; Peacock et al ap/06-rp [ESA-ESO report]; Baryshev et al a0809-conf ["practical cosmology"].
@ Status: Disney GRG(00)ap; Opher ap/03-conf; Peebles ap/03-conf [open problems]; Sanders LNP(05)ap/04; Starkman et al MNRAS(10)-a0909 [and future]; Quercellini et al PRP(12)-a1011 ["real-time cosmology"]; Benetti et al JCAP(13) [indications for new physics beyond a Harrison-Zel'dovich perturbation spectrum and the standard model]; news sa(15)aug [the universe is slowly fading out].
@ Theory: Verde et al a1303/PDU [local measurements]; Nugier PhD-a1309 [lightcone averaging and precision cosmology]; Blasco et al PRL(15)-a1501 [timelike information from the early universe]; Grandis et al JCAP(16)-a1510 [quantifying information gained from probes]; Nicola et al PRD(16)-a1607 [integrated approach]; Francfort et al a1907 [observational number counts].

Age of the Universe
* History: The first estimates were based on the Sun's lifetime, but the oldest globular clusters are 13.5 ± 2 Gyr old.
* Methods: Cosmochronology of long-lived radioactive nuclei; Stellar modelling and population synthesis of the oldest stellar populations; Precision cosmology with mapping of the acoustic peaks in the cmb.
* 2000: t0 ≈ 13 Gyr.
* 2001: t0 = 13.2 (+3.6−2.0) Gyr (1-σ), or 14.0 ± 0.5 Gyr [cmb].
* 2003: 11.2 < t0< 20 Gyr, t0 = 14.1+1.0−0.9 Gyr from WMAP+SDSS+SNIa.
* 2006: Accepted value 13.7 Gyr; Results based on measurement of Triangulum galaxy distance indicate a value 15% higher.
@ References: Hendry & Tayler CP(96); Jiménez ap/97-ln, ap/98-proc [and Λ]; Chaboyer PRP(98)ap; Lineweaver Sci(99)ap; Gribbin 00; Ferreras et al MNRAS(01)ap; Tonry et al ap/01-proc; Lahav ap/01-APS [cmb and 2dF]; Knox et al ApJL(01)ap [from cmb]; Krauss & Chaboyer Sci(03)jan [from globular clusters]; Lima a0708 [expression in terms of average deceleration]; Avelino & Kirshner ApJ(16)-a1607 [the dimensionless age of the universe is close to 1].

Matter and Radiation-Related Observations > s.a. light [propagation, transparency]; matter content; matter distribution.
@ Chemistry: Cen & Ostriker ApJL(99)ap [evolution]; > s.a. early-universe nucleosynthesis.
@ Birefringence: Nodland & Ralston PRL(97)ap + PRL(97)ap + ap/97/PRL, Eisenstein & Bunn PRL(97)ap, Leahy ap/97/PRL; Wardle et al PRL(97); Loredo et al PRD(97); Jain & Ralston MPLA(99); > s.a. polarization.
@ Other light-propagation effects: Ralston et al PRL(98) [Faraday rotation]; Liao et al PRD(15)-a1512 [cosmic opacity/transparency].
@ Particle propagation and detection: Fleury PLB(16)-a1604 [time delay]; > s.a. cosmic rays.
@ Cosmic parallax: Quercellini et al PRL(09)-a0809 [geometry from cosmic parallax]; Fontanini et al PRD(09)-a0905 [for test galaxies, and cosmological models]; Räsänen JCAP(14)-a1312 [covariant treatment].
@ Cosmology and small-scale physics: Niemeyer PRD(02)ap [curvature perturbations]; Freedman & Turner RMP(03); > s.a. black-hole types [primordial]; inflation; quantum-gravity phenomenology.
@ Equation of state: Visser CQG(04)gq/03 [and jerk]; Takahashi & Nakamura PTP(05)ap/04 [from gravitational waves]; > s.a. dark energy.
@ Gravitational waves: Lasky et al PRX(16) [observations across 29 decades in frequency].
@ Other techniques: Lombardi A&A(02)ap [interpolation, smoothing]; Van Waerbeke MNRAS(10)-a0906 [cosmic shear and magnification as probes]; Chen EPJST(14)-a1402 [cosmology with high-intensity lasers].
> Related topics: see monopoles; topological defects; variation of constants.

Other Observed Properties > s.a. cosmological parameters; early universe.
@ General references: Ma & Scott PRD(16)-a1510 [measurable cosmological information].
@ Redshifts: Davis PhD(03)ap/04 [and horizons]; Romano a1204 [and a cosmological uncertainty principle]; Calcino & Davis JCAP(17)-a1610 [redshift shifts as probes of local inhomogeneities].
@ Rotation: Kogut et al PRD(97)ap [from COBE maps]; Kühne MPLA(97)ap [and galaxy rotation axes]; Godlowski et al GRG(03)ap/04 [L of celestial bodies]; > s.a. galaxies [motions].
> Expansion and geometry: see acceleration; Cosmography; cosmological constant; expansion; geometry [including redshift-luminosity relation]; topology.
> Local properties: see cosmological principle [homogeneity, isotropy]; matter distribution.

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