Causality  

In General > s.a. causality in quantum theory [including information causality and indefinite causal structures]; causality violation; Determinism; locality.
* Idea: Explanations are given in terms of efficient/physical cause, as opposed to final cause (teleology); Often associated with predictability; The dominant paradigm is the "machine", a deterministically predictive one, despite setbacks from thermodynamics, special relativity, and quantum mechanics (Prigogine); Should be modified, according to him, to allow for self-organization and creation of order in non-linear dissipative systems and non-equilibrium thermodynamics.
* Rem: Causality implies conservation of identity, a far from simple notion; It imposes strong demands on the universalizing power of theories concerned, often met by the introduction of a metalevel which encompasses the notions of 'system' and 'lawful behaviour'; In classical mechanics, the division between universal and particular leaves its traces in the separate treatment of kinematics and dynamics; > s.a. Dynamics [synthesis between kinematics and dynamics].
* History: Francis Bacon considered causality as a mechanical relationship, as opposed to an abstract one.
@ General references: Fermi RMP(32); Margenau PhSc(34)apr; Bohm 57; Svechnikov 71; Jones AJP(96)mar [RL]; Hunter et al ed-98; Dowe & Noordhof 04; Hájíček phy/06 [and liberty]; Ross & Spurrett BJPS(07) [notions of cause and Russell]; Butterfield BJPS-a0708 [stochastic Einstein locality]; Janzing a0708 [asymmetry between cause and effect, Occam's razor, and thermodynamics]; Hájíček GRG(09)-a0803 [and freedom of choice]; Pearl 09; Coecke & Lal a1010-wd [time asymmetry, quantum information processing]; Ellis a1212-FQXi [top-down causation].
@ Causation: Ma FdP(00)qp/99-proc; Dowe PhSc(04)dec [conserved quantity theory]; Corry PhSc(06)jul [revision avoiding Bertrand Russell's arguments]; Kistler 06.
@ Other conceptual, philosophical: Mehlberg IJTP(69) [vs determinism]; Salmon PhSc(94)jun, PhSc(97)sep; Eckhardt SHPMP(06) [and irreversibility]; Cat PhSc(06)jan [fuzzy]; Smith BJPS(07) [relationship between causal dependence and causal laws]; Frisch BJPS(09) [role of causality]; Norton BJPS(09), reply Frisch BJPS(09); Verelst a1203 [analysis, application to theories of Newton and Leibniz]; Rédei & San Pedro SHPMP(12)-a1204 [inequivalent causality principles]; Vidunas a1707 [delegated causality in complex systems]; > s.a. Explanation; paradigms in physics.
> Four causes: see Efficient (Moving) Cause; Final Cause; Formal Cause; Material Cause; Marc Cohen's page.
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

In Classical Theories > s.a. causal structures; causality conditions; dispersion [Kramers-Kronig relations]; geometry; spacetime subsets.
* Classical field theory: Expressed by the support of Green functions or the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations, or vf.
* General relativity: For matter propagation, built in by the requirement that spacetime satisfy a causality condition.
@ General references: de Souza ht/97, BJP(02)ht/00, Bergqvist & Senovilla CQG(99)gq [field theory]; Patricot ht/04 [and symmetries]; Triacca PLA(07) [Granger causality for stochastic processes]; Yuffa & Scales EJP(12) [electrodynamics, and linear response]; Ajaib a1302 [physical vs numerical causality, and the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition]; Baumeler & Wolf NJP(16)-a1507 [classical processes without causal order]; > s.a. field theory.
@ k-essence: Bruneton PRD(07) [and MOND and other modified theories]; Babichev et al JHEP(08)-a0708.
@ In relativity and gravity: Jacobson in(91) [general relativity]; Rohrlich AJP(02)apr [and electromagnetism]; Bertolami & Lobo NQ-a0902; Kochiras SHPSA(09) [Newton's causal and substance counting problems].
@ And dispersion relations: Wigner ed-64; Nussenzveig 71; Fearn & Gibb qp/03.
@ Wave propagation: Bonilla & Senovilla PRL(97) [gravity in vacuum]; Mitchell & Chiao AJP(98)jan [vg < 0]; Smolyaninov JO(13)-a1210 [metamaterial model of causality]; > s.a. electromagnetism.
> Related topics: see gauge choice [causality and gauge in electromagnetism]; gravitating matter [and the speed of sound].

Related Topics > s.a. Retrocausation; tachyons; time; velocity.
* Principle of common cause: The idea that simultaneous correlated events must have prior common causes, first made precise by Hans Reichenbach in 1956; It can be used to infer the existence of unobserved and unobservable events, and to infer causal relations from statistical relations; It does not appear to be universally valid, in particular its validity is questionable in quantum mechanics, nor is there agreement as to the circumstances in which it is valid; > s.a. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy page.
* Emergent causality: In one proposal, information is seen as a more fundamental concept than the laws of physics, which leads to a different understanding of spacetime where causality emerges from correlations between random variables representing physical quantities.
* Other related concepts: Arguments by design (> see cosmology).
@ Principle of common cause: Reichenbach 56; Henson SHPMP(05)qp/04, reply to comment SHPMP(13) [quantum mechanics]; Mazzola FP(12); Hofer-Szabó et al 13 [r CP(14)#3]; Cavalcanti & Lal JPA(14)-a1311 [modifications in light of Bell's theorem]; Mazzola & Evans a1703 [existence of Reichenbachian common cause systems].
@ Emergent causality: Baumeler & Wolf ISIT(14)-a1312, a1602 [intrinsic definition of randomness, and complexity].
@ Causality vs correlations: news pt(14)nov [information flow, and application].
@ Probabilistic causality: Price BJPS(91); Twardy & Korb PhSc(04)jul; Dzhafarov & Kujala JMPsy-a1110; Zaopo a1209 [causal relations as observer-dependent]; Zhang BJPS(13) [connection between causality and probability].
@ Other generalizations: Choudhury & Mondal TMP(13) [almost causality, reflecting and distinguishing spacetimes]; > s.a. causality conditions.


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