Interference and Interferometry |

**In General**
> s.a. atom interferometry;
photons; wave phenomena.

* __For light__: 1801,
Young's double slit experiment; 1909, Seen by G I Taylor with weak
light, one photon going through at a time.

* __Interference in time__:
A plot of electron energies shows an interference pattern when the electrons
could have been emitted in one of two "slits" in time; In the Paulus
et al experiment, laser pulses with two maxima passed through a gas of Ar atoms.

@ __For light__: Sanz et al AP(10) [in terms of photon trajectories];
Padgett et al PRS(11) [knotted and tangled threads of darkness in interfering beams].

@ __For matter__: Gustavsson et al NJP(10) [interacting matter waves];
Steane PLA(17)-a1710 [coherence limit from cosmic gravitational wave background];
> s.a. wave-function collapse.

@ __Interference in time__:
news pw(05)mar [experiment];
Horwitz PLA(06)qp/05 [significance],
FP(07);
Campagne-Ibarcq et al PRL(14)-a1311 [between past and future quantum states, in resonance fluorescence];
Czachor a1808.

> __And gravity__: see gravitational
radiation; photon phenomenology in quantum gravity.

> __Related topics__: see astronomy [interferometry];
number theory [use for factoring numbers]; temperature
[interferometric thermometer].

**In Quantum Mechanics** > s.a. classical limit;
decoherence and models [gravitational];
quantum information; Superposition Principle.

* __With electrons__: Experiment first
performed in 1961 by Claus Jönsson at the University of Tübingen.

* __Non-classical paths__: The three
scenarios with one or two slits open at a time represent different sets of boundary
conditions, so the superposition principle is not exactly applicable; In a path-integral
approach the difference arises from non-classical paths, and can be testes in triple-slit
experiments.

@ __With electrons__:
Rodgers pw(02)sep [double slit];
Beau EJP(12) [path-integral approach];
Bach et al NJP(13)
+ news pw(13)mar [Feynman's version];
Marzlin & Lee PRA(14) [influence of Lorentz contraction];
Ariga et al a1808,
Giammarchi a1906-conf [antimatter, positrons].

@ __General references__: Schulman AJP(69)dec;
Braun & Georgeot PRA(06) [quantitative measure];
Sanz & Miret-Artés JPA(08)-a0806 [in terms of trajectories];
Silverman 08;
Camacho & Camacho-Galván RPP(07)-a0811 [testing fundamental physics];
Rave FP(08) [interpretation in terms of a phaselike quantity];
Chou et al PRL(09) [hydrodynamic view];
Sancho JPB(10)-a1003 [of indistinguishable particles];
Štefaňák PhD(10)-a1009 [in quantum information];
Grössing et al AP(12)-a1106 [classical trajectories plus zero-point fluctuations];
Davidović & Sanz EPN(14)-a1403 [complementarity and quantum foundations];
Tavernelli AP(18)-a1710 [self-interference and interpretations];
> s.a. experiments in quantum theory;
many-worlds interpretation.

@ __Welcher-Weg (which-way) experiment__:
Ferrari & Braunecker AJP(10)aug;
Sen a1201.

@ __Single particle__: Frisch CP(65),
reprint CP(09);
Grangier et al EPL(86) [single photon];
Scarani & Suarez AJP(98)aug [rev];
Ferrari & Braunecker AJP(10)aug [and quantum erasure];
Rasel Phy(12) [free-space single-particle matter-wave interference];
news pw(13)mar [single-electron double-slit diffraction];
Rueckner & Peidle AJP(13)dec [single photon interferometer with which-path marker and quantum eraser];
Aspden et al AJP(16)sep-a1602 [video recording];
Blasiak a1701
[single-particle interference can be understood classically].

@ __Two-particle interference__:
Horne et al PRL(89),
Nat(90)oct;
Sancho EPJD(14)-a1403 [two-particle, two-slit experiment];
Widom et al a1811 [for photons, and zero-point energy].

@ __Afshar's version__: Afshar in(05);
Drezet qp/05,
Steuernagel FP(07),
Kastner FP(09)-a0801 [and complementarity];
Flores SPIE(09)-a0803 [modified version],
FP(08)-a0802 [reply to comments];
Qureshi a1002 and
Kastner a1002;
Flores & De Tata FP(10);
> s.a. Complementarity.

@ __Non-local interferometer__: Kirby & Franson PRA(14)-a1310 [with entangled macroscopic coherent states];
Williams et al PRA(14)-a1408 [for entanglement detection].

@ __Other versions__: Gooding & Unruh PRD(14)-a1407
[self-gravitating interferometer, and intrinsic gravitational decoherence];
Garner et al PRS(17)-a1412 [other quantum theories and relativity of simultaneity];
Orlando et al a1610-in [interference patterns and free fall];
Roura a1810 [quantum-clock interferometry].

@ __Related topics__: Nitta & Kudo PRA(08) [time of arrival in double slit];
Sen a1201 [proposed experiment with atoms of noble gases];
Malvimat et al MNRAS(13)-a1304
[higher-order HBT correlations and intensity interferometry with more than two detectors];
Schmidt et al PRL(13)
[momentum transfer to a double slit, realization of Einstein-Bohr thought experiment];
Brodutch et al PRD(14)-a1412 [post-Newtonian gravitational effects];
news forbes(15)dec [solar-systems size "double-slit" experiment];
Bromley et al PRA(17)-a1610 [more than entanglement];
> s.a. particle statistics [many-particle interference];
pilot-wave phenomenology; quantum measurements
[weak measurements]; special-relativistic kinematics [twin paradox].

**Multi-Path or Higher-Order Interference** > s.a. Born Rule.

* __Idea__:
Born's rule predicts that quantum interference, as shown by a double-slit diffraction
experiment, occurs from pairs of paths; A generalized version of quantum mechanics
might allow multi-path, i.e., higher-order interference; Sorkin has defined a hierarchy
of possible interference behaviours, where classical theory is at the first level and
quantum theory at the second level; Informally, the order in the hierarchy corresponds
to the number of paths that have an irreducible interaction in a multi-slit experiment;
2010, The generalized types of interference are currently under experimental investigation.

@ __General references__: Henson PRL(15)-a1406 [and non-locality and contextuality];
Bolotin a1611;
Qureshi a1905 [new wave-particle duality relation].

@ __Triple-slit__: Ududec et al FP(11)-a0909 [and structure of quantum theory];
Kobayashi et al PRA(10)-a0911 [and geometric phase for photon];
Niestegge AMP(12)-a0912 [Sorkin's third-order interference term];
Sinha et al Sci(10)jul-a1007
+ news pw(10)jul [experiment, ruling out third and higher-order interference];
Niestegge FP(13)-a1104 [and Tsirelson's bound];
De Raedt et al PRA(12)-a1112 [analysis of multipath interference];
Siddiqui & Qureshi PTEP(15)-a1405 [duality relation];
Sawant et al PRL(14)-a1408
+ focus Phy(14)
+ news pw(14)sep [role of non-classical paths];
Sewell Phy(17),
news pw(17)apr [demonstration by two independent groups];
Cotter et al SciAdv(17)aug
+ news sa(17)aug [with large molecules];
Skagerstam a1807;
> s.a. pilot-wave interpretation.

@ __ N-fold interference__: Sbitnev a1001 [and Bohmian trajectories];
Kauten et al NJP(17)-a1508 [five-path interferometer];
Bagan et al PRL(16)-a1509 [coherence and path-information];
Lee & Selby NJP(16)-a1604 [no computational speed-up over quantum theory];
Agne et al PRL(17)-a1609 [observation of genuine three-photon interference].

main page
– abbreviations
– journals – comments
– other sites – acknowledgements

send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 25 jun 2019