Optical Technology  

In General > s.a. astronomy [telescopes]; microscopes; mirrors in quantum field theory; optics.
* Photonic crystal: An example of metamaterial; Consists of stacks of tiny rods, or solid material bored out with a honeycomb pattern of voids; The voids have a lower refractive index than the host material, and the periodic variation of refractive index excludes light at certain frequencies – the optical equivalent of the energy gap in a semiconductor; > s.a. radiation [Cerenkov].
* Optomechanical devices: Devices that use mechanical effects of light; The effects have been known for a long time (e.g., radiation pressure, starting with solar and starlight effect on surrounding matter), but until recently they were too small for practical applications; Now (2010) nanoscale optomechanical systems are explored as ultrasensitive force and displacement sensors, and by using light to cool a mechanical system to its quantum ground state, researchers hope to explore the foundations of quantum mechanics in a new regime.
@ Optical communication: Thomas et al PT(00)sep; Gisin PRA(13) [without photons, sending the vacuum state].
@ Halogen lights: McGowan SA(96)jul [fill bulb with halogen gas to react with evaporated tungsten].
@ Photonic crystals: news pn(99)feb + PT(99)jan, pw(00)aug; Yablonovitch SA(01)dec; Gersen et al PRL(05) + pw(05)apr [measurement].
@ Optical / wave computers: Ahn et al Sci(00)jan; Gibbs SA(04)nov.
@ Optomechanical devices: Marquardt video Phy(10); Shvedov et al PRL(10) ["tractor beams"]; news AT(12)feb [electromagnetic to mechanical oscillations].
@ Quantum optical technologies: Dowking & Seshadreesan JLT(15)-a1412 [metrology, sensing and imaging].
@ Related topics: Sansone et al Sci(06)oct + pn(07)may [shortest light pulse, 130 × 10–18 s long]; Stefani et al PT(09)feb [blinking of nanoscale sources]; news sn(09)oct [device that converts light to motion]; > s.a. physics teaching [LEDs].

* Photography: In a photographic emulsion, incoming light knocks an electron loose from silver halide grains; This allows the crystals of atomic silver to form; These are later developed into images.
* Mirrors: Mirrors typically absorb a few percent of the light; "Dielectric mirrors" are highly reflective, but only for a band of wavelengths; > s.a. mirrors in quantum field theorysound [time reversal mirrors].
* Transformation optics: 2010, The field in which optical materials are tailored to direct the trajectory of light to accomplish desired effects; It has led to astonishing devices previously thought to be impossible, such as perfect lenses fabricated from flat pieces of material, invisibility cloaks, and illusion devices that make an object appear as something else; > s.a. meta-materials.
* Quantum illumination: A quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background.
@ Quantum illumination: Lloyd a0803 [with entangled photons]; Lopaeva et al PRL(13)-a1303 [experimental realization]; Barzanjeh et al PRL(15) [et microwave frequencies]; > s.a. correlations [quantum discord].
@ Other quantum imaging: Tsang PRL(09) + Anisimov & Dowling Phy(09)jul [spatially entangled states]; Lahiri et al PRA(15)-a1504 [with undetected photons].
@ Mirrors: Fink et al Sci(98)nov [the best mirror so far]; Asadchy et al PRL(15) [metamaterial mirrors for single frequencies].
@ Lenses: Walther 95; news pn(07)may, van Putten et al PRL(11) + wired(11)may [resolving details smaller than 100 nm]; news SA(15)apr , pw(16)feb [flat, diffractive lenses].
@ Transformation optics: Popa & Cummer PRA(10); McCall CP(13).
@ Related topics: news pn(98)jun [with IR radiation]; news bbc(12)jul [seeing images through "scattering" materials or around corners]; Durkin Phy(16) [on quantum metrology and the Rayleigh criterion].

Lasers > s.a. Lasers [other types]; photons.
* Idea: Coherent light is emitted by atoms pumped into an excited state by stimulated emission.
* Free electron lasers: Amplified laser light comes from an electron beam in an undulator cavity; Light is tunable; 2000, λ = 93 nm obtained.
* Applications: Generate intense streams of ions with laser pulses on solids; Optical tweezers that hold particles at a laser focus, widely used today (2013).
* Atom laser: A source of atoms in a coherent state [@ Kleppner PT(97)aug].
* Most powerful: Petawatt, produces 1.3 PW for 0.5 × 10–12 s (1998).
@ General references: Feld & An SA(98)jul [single-atom]; Townes 99 [history]; Shverdin et al PRL(05) + pw(05)feb [1.6 femtosecond pulses]; news pw(08)may [random lasers]; Arnaud et al a0906 [quiet lasers]; Nelson et al PT(10)jan [1960, the first laser]; Ditmire AS(10)#5 [high-power lasers].
@ Interaction with atoms: Dürr et al a1309 [dipole approximation].
@ Applications: Letokhov SA(88)sep [spectroscopy]; Rech(93)jun, p686 [medicine]; Downing et al Sci(96)aug + pn(96)sep [3D imaging]; Cowburn CP(08) [Laser Surface Authentication]; Gabel CP(08) [nanoscale surgery]; news wired(09)sep [laser cooling]; news pw(13)jan [optical tractor beam]; news PhysOrg(13)jul [active laser ranging for interplanetary distances].
@ Related topics: McKeever et al Nat(03)sep + pw(03)sep [1-atom laser]; news pw(11)feb ["anti-laser" that almost perfectly absorbs incoming light]; news prf(11)apr [nuclear lasers–gamma-ray or visible]; news pw(11)jun [lasing in living cells]; Di Piazza et al RMP(12) [extremely-high-intensity]; Sánchez-Muñoz et al nPhot(14)-a1306 [proposal of laser of N-photon states]; Svidzinsky et al PRX(13) [without population inversion, by resonant superradiant emission].

Holograms, Holography > s.a. holographic field theory.
@ General references: Johnston 06 [r pw(06)aug].
@ Quantum holography: Weinacht et al Nat(99)jan + pn(99)jan.
@ Special topics: Vikram 92 [particle field holography]; Fadley & Len Nat(96)mar, Tegze & Faigel Nat(96)mar [with X-rays]; Burr et al pw(00)jul [data storage]; news sci(10)nov [towards real-time holograms]; news pt(16)oct [neutron holography].

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