History of Physics by Areas |

**Classical Mechanics** > s.a. chaos; hamiltonian
and lagrangian dyamics; special relativity.

* __Earliest developments__: The earliest
known ancient Greek text on mechanics is the pseudo-Aristotelian *Mechanical Problems*,
probably written by an early Peripatetic.

* __First period__: Qualitative
investigations, until Kepler & Galileo; Galileo's experiments with dropping
bodies were preceded by those described in 1544 by the historian Benedetto Varchi
and those reported in 1576 by Giuseppe Moletti, Galileo's predecessor in Padova.

* __Second period__: Quantitative
theory (1687–1889), Newton, Euler, Lagrange, Laplace, Hamilton, Jacobi;
Especially celestial mechanics, formalized in the many-body problem; Stability?
[@ Moulton 02; Dugas 55];
From Newton onwards, purely mechanical models until Maxwell and electromagnetic theory
(ether persisted).

* __Third period__: Neo-qualitative
theory (1889–present), resurrection
of geometrical point of view and use of manifolds (as opposed to Euclidean
space), differential topology (as opposed to analytic methods), new questions
(structural stability);
Started with Poincaré, but needed intrinsic calculus by Cartan
for full development, Birkhoff, Moser.

@ __References__: Bailey FP(83) [least action],
FP(02) [Lagrangian and Hamiltonian];
Segrè 84; Fabrikant SPU(91) [acceleration];
Charap ht/93-conf [analytical mechanics];
Crowe 07 [Aristotle to Einstein]; Nolte PT(10)apr
[phase space]; Esposito & Schettino a1204 [acceptance of Newton's science, and Atwood's machine]; Graney a1204 [Riccioli's attempts to disprove Galileo's ideas, and confirmation]; Coxhead SHPSA(12) [pseudo-Aristotelian *Mechanical Problems*]; Rojo & Bloch 17 [least action].

> __Specific topics__: see clocks; constrained systems; momentum; Perpetual Motion Devices.

**Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics** > s.a. critical
phenomena; Kinetic
Theory; heat; statistical
mechanics; temperature; thermodynamics.

* __XIX century__: With the
advent of steam
engines came the first
developments by Black, Carnot, Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs, et al, as a way of understanding and maximizing engine efficiency; 1842,
First law formulated by Robert Mayer; 1843–1849, Experiments on energy and
heat by Robert Joule; 1850, Second law formulated by Clausius and by Lord Kelvin;
The subject became more fundamental with Boltzmann and kinetic theory; 1950s, Jacques Yvon's work on output power limitation (Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency); 1970s, Finite-time thermodynamics.

* __XX century__: Brussels
School, self-organization paradigm, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics; "The
first systematic and contradiction-free formulation was given by Carathéodory".

* __2000__: It is still a
forefront discipline; One of its new uses is to maximize information
flow in computers.

@ __Thermodynamics__: Truesdell 80; Kox SHPMP(06)
[third law, Nernst's heat theorem and Einstein]; Lemos & Penner AJP(08)jan
[Sadi Carnot and the second law]; Cohen a0807-conf
[entropy, probabilistic vs dynamical interpretation]; Newburgh EJP(09)
[from Carnot's caloric to Clausius' entropy]; Starikov a1110 [George Augustus Linhart]; Sparavigna IJS-a1301 [Robert Grosseteste, the four classical elements and phase transitions]; Ouerdane et al EPJST(15)-a1411 [laws, efficiencies, finite-time thermodynamics]; Sauer a1612 [Ehrenfest classification of phase transitions].

@ __Boltzmann__: Goldstein LNP(01)cm; Crease pw(06)sep;
Gyftopoulos a0710;
Brown & Myrvold a0809 [H-theorem];
Swendsen PhyA(10)
[definition of entropy].

@ __Gibbs__: Mehra FP(98)
[and foundations]; Kadanoff JSP(14)-a1403-talk; Phillies a1706 [reading his *Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics*].

@ __Statistical mechanics, other__: Brush 83; Dresden PT(88)sep;
Parisi cm/01-conf
[Planck]; Cercignani LNP(01);
Viscardy cm/06/SHPMP [non-equilibrium]; Kadanoff JSP(09)-a0906 [phase
transitions and mean-field theory]; Narasimhan PT(09)jul
[diffusion]; Andersen & Chandler a1407 [Robert W Zwanzig]; Peliti & Rechtman JSP(16)-a1606 [Einstein's approach]; Lebowitz & Bonolis a1702/EPJH [Joel Lebowitz]; > s.a. ising model; Monte Carlo Method.

**Other Areas of Physics** > s.a. brownian motion; physics teaching.

* __Electromagnetism__:
The first observations were probably made by Thales of Miletus (600 BC) on
rubbing; Ideas were confused until the end of the XVIII century, with Cavendish & Coulomb
(analogous figure to Newton for gravity); 1820, Electromagnetism discovered
and first electrodynamic theory proposed, then developed quickly until final
form by Maxwell; Convention on + and – charges chosen by B Franklin;
Hertz's experiments lead to acceptance of Maxwell's theory (over Helmholtz's).

* __ Atomic physics__: 1860, Lord Kelvin and others proposed that atoms consist of vortices spinning in the ether; 1921, Reputable physicists (including Joseph Larmor) still supported theories of atoms without quantum theory.

@ __Atomic physics__: Brush
83; Nye 84; Boorse et al 89; Keve 00 [historical novel]; Lindley 01 [Boltzmann];
Irons AJP(01)aug
[Poincaré
1911–1912]; Di Grezia & Esposito FP(04)phy [Thomas-Fermi
statistical model
& Majorana]; Bernstein AJP(06)oct
[Brown, Boltzmann, Bachelier, Einstein]; Wilholt SHPMP(08)
[XIX-century debates and realism]; Haroche PRL(08) [50 years of atomic, molecular and optical physics]; Toennies et al AdP(11)-a1109 [experimental, Otto Stern (1888-1969)]; Baily a1111-wd [models, 1904-1913]; Kragh & Nielsen a1112 [Bohr model, popularization]; Kragh a1112/BHC [Lars Vegard, first proposal of electron configurations for atoms, based on planar electron rings]; Baily EPJH(12)-a1208 [early atomic models, 1904-1913]; Demopoulos et al SHPMP(12) [Poincaré's 1912 essay]; Pérez & Pié a1502-proc [quantum mechanics and the atomistic hypothesis]; Bose CS-a1503 [atomic hypothesis]; in Clarke Isis(15) [modern physics and Hargreaves's 1921 paper]; > s.a. Stark Effect.

@ __Magnetism__: Verschuur 93; Elliott PhyA(07); Sparavigna MMSE-a1512 [Petrus Peregrinus of Maricourt and medieval knowledge of magnetism].

@ __Electromagnetism__: Buchwald 85; Hendry 86 [Maxwell]; Kargon & Achinstein
ed-87; Whittaker 87; Buchwald 89 [light]; Buchwald 94 [waves]; Dusek 99 [influence of holistic philosophies]; Darrigol 01 [Ampère to Einstein]; Jackson & Okun RMP(01)phy/00;
Smirnov-Rueda FP(05)phy [Hert'z
experiments]; Hehl AdP(08)-a0807 [Minkowski's
form of the Maxwell equations]; Mamone Capria & Manini a1111 [unification of electricity and magnetism]; Darrigol 12 [optics]; Rautio ieee(14)dec;
Kragh a1606 [Ludvig Lorenz];
Falconer SHPSA(17)-a1608 [Maxwell and Cavendish's null experiment];
Sparavigna a1609 [Vito Volterra's commemoration of Faraday]; Kragh a1803 [1867 Lorenz paper];
> s.a. XIX-century physics; electromagnetic fields;
light.

@ __Theoretical physics__: Kline 85;
Jungnickel & McCormmach 86; Schweber HSPS(86);
White AS(12)#3 [William Herschel's discovery of infrared radiation].

@ __Solid state and technology__: Eckert & Schubert 89; Hoddeson et
al 92; Cahn 01 [materials science];
Gonzalo & Aragó López 03 [solid state]; Bethe & Mermin PT(04)jun
[solid state and quantum mechanics].

@ __Soft matter__: news Guard(15)may.

@ __Fluid dynamics__: Darrigol HSPBS(98) [Helmholtz];
Grimberg et al PhyD(08)-a0801
[d'Alembert's paradox and drag force]; > s.a. Superfluids.

__Other areas__: see astronomy and astrophysics; molecular, quantum, and nuclear physics; history of particle physics; history of relativistic gravity.

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