History of Physics by Areas |

**Classical Mechanics** > s.a. chaos; hamiltonian
and lagrangian dyamics; special relativity.

* __Earliest developments__: The earliest
known ancient Greek text on mechanics is the pseudo-Aristotelian *Mechanical Problems*,
probably written by an early Peripatetic.

* __First period__: Qualitative
investigations, until Kepler & Galileo; Galileo's experiments with dropping
bodies were preceded by those described in 1544 by the historian Benedetto Varchi
and those reported in 1576 by Giuseppe Moletti, Galileo's predecessor in Padova.

* __Second period__: Quantitative
theory (1687–1889), Newton, Euler, Lagrange, Laplace, Hamilton, Jacobi;
Especially celestial mechanics, formalized in the many-body problem; Stability?
[@ Moulton 02; Dugas 55];
From Newton onwards, purely mechanical models until Maxwell and electromagnetic theory
(ether persisted).

* __Third period__: Neo-qualitative
theory (1889–present), resurrection
of geometrical point of view and use of manifolds (as opposed to Euclidean
space), differential topology (as opposed to analytic methods), new questions
(structural stability);
Started with Poincaré, but needed intrinsic calculus by Cartan
for full development, Birkhoff, Moser.

@ __References__: Bailey FP(83) [least action],
FP(02) [Lagrangian and Hamiltonian];
Segrè 84; Fabrikant SPU(91) [acceleration];
Charap ht/93-conf [analytical mechanics];
Crowe 07 [Aristotle to Einstein];
Nolte PT(10)apr [phase space];
Esposito & Schettino a1204 [acceptance of Newton's science, and Atwood's machine];
Graney a1204
[Riccioli's attempts to disprove Galileo's ideas, and confirmation];
Coxhead SHPSA(12) [pseudo-Aristotelian *Mechanical Problems*];
Rojo & Bloch 17 [least action].

> __Specific topics__: see clocks;
constrained systems; momentum;
Perpetual Motion Devices.

**Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics** > s.a. critical phenomena;
Kinetic Theory; heat; statistical
mechanics; temperature; thermodynamics.

* __XIX century__: With the
advent of steam engines came the first developments by Black, Carnot, Clausius,
Boltzmann, Gibbs, et al, as a way of understanding and maximizing engine efficiency;
1842, First law formulated by Robert Mayer; 1843–1849, Experiments on energy
and heat by Robert Joule; 1850, Second law formulated by Clausius and by Lord Kelvin;
The subject became more fundamental with Boltzmann and kinetic theory; 1950s, Jacques
Yvon's work on output power limitation (Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency); 1970s, Finite-time
thermodynamics.

* __XX century__: Brussels School,
self-organization paradigm, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics; "The first
systematic and contradiction-free formulation was given by Carathéodory".

* __2000__: It is still a forefront
discipline; One of its new uses is to maximize information flow in computers.

@ __Thermodynamics__: Truesdell 80;
Kox SHPMP(06) [third law, Nernst's heat theorem and Einstein];
Lemos & Penner AJP(08)jan [Sadi Carnot and the second law];
Cohen a0807-conf
[entropy, probabilistic vs dynamical interpretation]; Newburgh EJP(09)
[from Carnot's caloric to Clausius' entropy]; Starikov a1110 [George Augustus Linhart]; Sparavigna IJS-a1301 [Robert Grosseteste, the four classical elements and phase transitions]; Ouerdane et al EPJST(15)-a1411 [laws, efficiencies, finite-time thermodynamics]; Sauer a1612 [Ehrenfest classification of phase transitions]; Piazza a1807 [the Dulong-Petit law].

@ __Boltzmann__: Goldstein LNP(01)cm; Crease pw(06)sep;
Gyftopoulos a0710;
Brown & Myrvold a0809 [H-theorem];
Swendsen PhyA(10)
[definition of entropy].

@ __Gibbs__: Mehra FP(98)
[and foundations]; Kadanoff JSP(14)-a1403-talk; Phillies a1706 [reading his *Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics*].

@ __Statistical mechanics, other__: Brush 83;
Dresden PT(88)sep;
Parisi cm/01-conf [Planck];
Cercignani LNP(01);
Viscardy cm/06/SHPMP [non-equilibrium];
Kadanoff JSP(09)-a0906 [phase transitions and mean-field theory];
Narasimhan PT(09)jul [diffusion];
Andersen & Chandler a1407 [Robert W Zwanzig];
Peliti & Rechtman JSP(16)-a1606 [Einstein's approach];
Lebowitz & Bonolis a1702/EPJH [Joel Lebowitz];
> s.a. ising model; Monte Carlo Method.

**Other Areas of Physics**
> s.a. brownian motion; physics teaching.

* __Electromagnetism__:
The first observations were probably made by Thales of Miletus (600 BC) on
rubbing; Ideas were confused until the end of the XVIII century, with Cavendish
& Coulomb (analogous figure to Newton for gravity); 1820, Electromagnetism
discovered and first electrodynamic theory proposed, then developed quickly until
final form by Maxwell; Convention on + and – charges chosen by B Franklin;
Hertz's experiments lead to acceptance of Maxwell's theory (over Helmholtz's).

* __ Atomic physics__:
1860, Lord Kelvin and others proposed that atoms consist of vortices spinning
in the ether; 1921, Reputable physicists (including Joseph Larmor) still supported
theories of atoms without quantum theory.

@ __Atomic physics__: Brush 83;
Nye 84;
Boorse et al 89;
Keve 00 [historical novel];
Lindley 01 [Boltzmann];
Irons AJP(01)aug [Poincaré 1911–1912];
Di Grezia & Esposito FP(04)phy [Thomas-Fermi statistical model & Majorana];
Bernstein AJP(06)oct [Brown, Boltzmann, Bachelier, Einstein];
Wilholt SHPMP(08) [XIX-century debates and realism];
Haroche PRL(08) [50 years of atomic, molecular and optical physics];
Toennies et al AdP(11)-a1109 [experimental, Otto Stern (1888-1969)];
Baily a1111-wd [models, 1904-1913];
Kragh & Nielsen a1112 [Bohr model, popularization];
Kragh a1112/BHC
[Lars Vegard, first proposal of electron configurations for atoms, based on planar electron rings];
Baily EPJH(12)-a1208 [early atomic models, 1904-1913];
Demopoulos et al SHPMP(12) [Poincaré's 1912 essay];
Pérez & Pié a1502-proc [quantum mechanics and the atomistic hypothesis];
Bose CS-a1503 [atomic hypothesis];
in Clarke Isis(15) [modern physics and Hargreaves's 1921 paper];
> s.a. Stark Effect.

@ __Magnetism__: Verschuur 93;
Elliott PhyA(07);
Sparavigna MMSE-a1512
[Petrus Peregrinus of Maricourt and medieval knowledge of magnetism];
Singh a1807.

@ __Electromagnetism__: Buchwald 85;
Hendry 86 [Maxwell];
Kargon & Achinstein ed-87;
Whittaker 87;
Buchwald 89 [light];
Buchwald 94 [waves];
Dusek 99 [influence of holistic philosophies];
Darrigol 01 [Ampère to Einstein];
Jackson & Okun RMP(01)phy/00;
Smirnov-Rueda FP(05)phy [Hert'z experiments];
Hehl AdP(08)-a0807 [Minkowski's form of the Maxwell equations];
Mamone Capria & Manini a1111 [unification of electricity and magnetism];
Darrigol 12 [optics];
Rautio ieee(14)dec;
Kragh a1606 [Ludvig Lorenz];
Falconer SHPSA(17)-a1608 [Maxwell and Cavendish's null experiment];
Sparavigna a1609 [Vito Volterra's commemoration of Faraday];
Kragh a1803 [1867 Lorenz paper];
> s.a. XIX-century physics; electromagnetic fields;
light.

@ __Theoretical physics__: Kline 85;
Jungnickel & McCormmach 86;
Schweber HSPS(86);
White AS(12)#3 [William Herschel's discovery of infrared radiation].

@ __Solid state and technology__: Eckert & Schubert 89;
Hoddeson et al 92;
Cahn 01 [materials science];
Gonzalo & Aragó López 03 [solid state];
Bethe & Mermin PT(04)jun [solid state and quantum mechanics].

@ __Soft matter__:
news Guard(15)may.

@ __Fluid dynamics__: Darrigol HSPBS(98) [Helmholtz];
Grimberg et al PhyD(08)-a0801 [d'Alembert's paradox and drag force];
> s.a. Superfluids.

__Other areas__:
see astronomy and astrophysics; molecular,
quantum, and nuclear physics; history
of particle physics; history of relativistic gravity.

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