History
of Particle Physics and Field Theory |

**Theoretical Aspects, Particle Physics in
General ** > s.a. history of quantum
physics [including quantum field theory].

* __Idea__: The failure
to construct a relativistically invariant position eigenstate was a
contributing factor in the demise of the so-called relativistic quantum
mechanics, in favor of quantum field theories (> see locality).

* __1930s__: Jordan
introduced annihilation and creation operators (who first realized that
everything is made of field quanta), viewed with suspicion by Pauli.

* __1947__: The short
paper Hans Bethe published after the Shelter Island meeting, a calculation
of the Lamb shift that showed good agreement with the experimental value,
convinced the experts that QED was physically correct and no radically new
theory was needed.

@ __Particle physics__: Segrè 80;
Brown & Hoddeson ed-83; Pickering
84; Pais 86;
Riordan 87; Bernstein 89;
Hovis & Kragh AJP(91)sep;
Ezhela et al ed-96; Zichichi RNC(98);
Rajasekaran phy/06
[structure of matter]; Weinberg PT(11)aug;
Bernstein AS(12)mar; Henley & Ellis ed-13
[and nuclear physics]; Weinberg IJMPA(13);
Iurato a1402
[especially cosmic-ray physics and muon anomalous magnetic moment]; blog pt(14)aug
[1970s]; Narison 16.

@ __Renormalization__: Brown ed-93;
Huang IJMPA(13)-a1310;
Brézin JSP(14)-a1402-talk;
Peskin JSP(14)-a1405
[Ken Wilson and strong interactions].

> __Related topics__:
see history of XX-century physics; casimir
effect; regularization.

**Gauge Theory and the Standard Model ** > s.a. particle
physics.

@ __Gauge theories, Yang-Mills theory__: 't Hooft RMP(00),
Veltman RMP(00)
[Nobel lectures]; De Rújula hp/04-ch
[Yang-Mills theories]; Marateck phy/06
[and Feynman diagrams], phy/06
[Yang-Mills paper]; Huang 07;
Salisbury SHPMP(09)-a0904-proc
[Léon Rosenfeld's work on local gauge symmetries]; Marateck NAMS-a1111;
Yang PT(14)nov
[and Maxwell's equations]; Kibble a1412
[standard model]; Scholz a1607
[precursor, Weyl and automorphisms]; Slavnov a1511-conf;
't Hooft NPB-a1604-in
[renormalization].

@ __QED__: Schweber 94; Dyson
PT(05)oct
[Bethe]; Kinoshita IJMPA(06)
[Tomonaga]; Esposito phy/06,
FP(07)phy/06
[Majorana manuscripts]; Baym & Ozawa PNAS(09)-a0902
[Bohr's argument for electromagnetic field quantization].

@ __QCD__: Adler hp/04/PT;
Gross
RMP(05)
[Nobel
lecture]; Greenberg a0803-proc
[discovery
of color degree of freedom]; Tkachov a0904
[quarks,
Struminsky's 1965 paper], comment Petrov a0908,
follow-up Tkachov a0912;
Cao 10; Karl IJMPA(10)
[and confinement]; Ali & Kramer EJPH(11)-a1110
[impact of quark and gluon jets]; Leutwyler MPLA(14)-a1211-ln
[strong interactions]; Fritzsch MPLA(13)-proc;
Cao MPLA(14);
Gell-Mann MPLA(14);
Crewther IJMPA(15)-a1412-in
[non-perturbative understanding of neutral pion decay]; Ellis a1608 [contributions of Guido Altarelli]; de Rújula a1610-conf; > s.a. lattice
QCD.

@ __Quarks__: Zweig IJMPA(10)-a1007
[Gell-Mann]; Gell-Mann IJMPA(13);
news sn(14)jan
[50th anniversary]; Glashow IJMPA(14),
Fritzsch IJMPA(14)
[50 years]; Ellis a1409-ch
[discovery of gluons]; Ravndal IJMPA(15)-a1411-in
[work with Feynman on the parton model]; Petrov a1412;
> s.a. hadrons; QCD
phenomenology.

@ __Weak interactions__: Lee IJMPA(01);
Lesov a0911;
Mohapatra IJMPA(12);
Maiani RNC-a1303
[Cabibbo theory]; Rajasekaran Res(14)-a1403.

@ __Electroweak theory__: Aczel SA(10)nov
[Weinberg and the electroweak theory]; Kibble a1502-conf
[symmetry breaking].

@ __Other interactions, high-energy physics__: Straumann hp/96-ln;
O'Raifeartaigh 97; 't Hooft ht/98;
Jackiw phy/04
[contributions by Jackiw]; Polyakov ht/04-ch;
Rajasekaran
phy/06-conf
[Indian
contributions]; Schroer EPJH(10)-a0712
[contributions
by Swieca].

@ __Specific types of particles__: Rosenfeld PTPS(68)
[meson]; Brown PT(86)dec
[Yukawa and the meson]; > s.a. photon.

@ __ Specific theoretical topics__: Petrov a0908
[quark color, Soviet contribution]; Pietschmann EPJH(11)-a1101
[current algebra]; Karaca SHPMP(13)
[construction of the Higgs mechanism and emergence of the electroweak
theory].

@ __ Specific periods__: Brown et al PT(88)nov
[1950s]; Corrigan a0810
[graduate education in 1969].

> __Other specific
theories__:
see electromagnetism; dirac
fields
in
curved
spacetime.

> __Other specific
topics__:
see connection; higgs
boson; neutrinos; spin;
symmetries and symmetry
breaking.

**Beyond the Standard Model** > s.a. GUTs;
unified
theories.

* __String theory__:
The original phenomenological theory described hadrons as elongated
strings, because of the long range forces indicated by the Regge
trajectories; With strings considered as fundamental (anomaly
cancellations), it became extremely popular in the mid-1980s, and made
grandiose claims; Then decrease of interest (J Ehlers: It is in danger of
losing contact with thought experiments!), until duality and M-theory came
along.

@ __General references__: O'Raifeartaigh & Straumann RMP(00)hp/98
[Kaluza-Klein theory].

@ __Quantum gravity__: Rovelli gq/00-MG9;
>
s.a. history of relativistic physics.

@ __Supersymmetry__: Ramond EPJC(14)-a1401
[the early years (1966-1976)]; Jarlskog a1503
[early roots]; > s.a. supergravity; supersymmetric
field theories.

@ __String theory__: Di Vecchia LNP(08)-a0704
[1968-1974]; Freund a0708-conf
[two-component hadronic duality precursor]; Di Vecchia & Schwimmer LNP(08)-a0708
[beginning]; Schwarz a0708-ln;
Ramond
a0708-ch;
Shapiro a0711-ch;
Musto
a0801-ch;
Goddard a0802-ch
[from
dual models]; Cremmer a0812-ch;
Yoneya
a0901-ch
[and
gravity]; Nielsen a0904-conf
[and Veneziano model]; Schwarz a1201-ln
[and supersymmetry]; Cappelli et al ed-12;
Rickles 14; Itoyama PTEP-a1604
[early history, Veneziano, Nambu].

**Experimental Aspects** > s.a. experimental
particle physics.

@ __General references__: Amaldi PRP(84)
[and nuclear physics]; Taubes 86 [*Z*
and *W*]; Dahl 97 [electron];
Krige Isis(01)
[heavy bosons]; Giacomelli phy/06-conf
[bubble
chambers]; Samios IJMPA(10)
[1050s & 1060s, Gell-Mann and discoveries]; Melissinos 12;
Navarro 12
[electron]; Thomas HSNS(12)
[interpretive methods, 1930-1950]; Tannenbaum EPJH(16)-a1608 [the search for the *W* and the Higgs].

@ __Facilities, experiments__: Stevens HSPBS(03)
[accelerators]; Holmes a1109-conf
[Tevatron proton-antiproton collider]; Shiltsev a1307-ch
[the first colliders]; Maiani & Bonolis a1705 [LHC timeline].

@ __Cosmic-ray physics__: Xu & Brown AJP(87)jan;
Cronin EPJH(11)-a1111
[1953 cosmic-ray conference at Bagnères de Bigorre and beginning of
subatomic physics].

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send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 16 may
2017