History of Particle Physics and Field Theory |

**Theoretical Aspects, Particle Physics in General**
> s.a. history of quantum physics [including quantum field theory].

* __Idea__: The failure
to construct a relativistically invariant position eigenstate was a
contributing factor in the demise of the so-called relativistic quantum
mechanics, in favor of quantum field theories (> see locality).

* __1930s__: Jordan
introduced annihilation and creation operators (who first realized that
everything is made of field quanta), viewed with suspicion by Pauli.

* __1947__: The short
paper Hans Bethe published after the Shelter Island meeting, a calculation
of the Lamb shift that showed good agreement with the experimental value,
convinced the experts that QED was physically correct and no radically new
theory was needed.

@ __Particle physics__: Segrè 80;
Brown & Hoddeson ed-83;
Pickering 84; Pais 86;
Riordan 87; Bernstein 89;
Hovis & Kragh AJP(91)sep;
Ezhela et al ed-96; Zichichi RNC(98);
Rajasekaran phy/06 [structure of matter];
Weinberg PT(11)aug;
Bernstein AS(12)mar;
Henley & Ellis ed-13 [and nuclear physics];
Weinberg IJMPA(13);
Iurato a1402
[especially cosmic-ray physics and muon anomalous magnetic moment];
blog pt(14)aug [1970s];
Narison 16.

@ __Renormalization__: Brown ed-93;
Huang IJMPA(13)-a1310;
Brézin JSP(14)-a1402-talk;
Peskin JSP(14)-a1405 [Ken Wilson and strong interactions].

> __Related topics__:
see history of XX-century physics; casimir
effect; regularization.

**Gauge Theory and the Standard Model ** > s.a. particle physics.

@ __Gauge theories, Yang-Mills theory__:
't Hooft RMP(00),
Veltman RMP(00) [Nobel lectures];
De Rújula hp/04-ch [Yang-Mills theories];
Marateck phy/06 [and Feynman diagrams],
phy/06 [Yang-Mills paper];
Huang 07;
Salisbury SHPMP(09)-a0904-proc [Léon Rosenfeld's work on local gauge symmetries];
Marateck NAMS-a1111;
Yang PT(14)nov [and Maxwell's equations];
Kibble a1412 [standard model];
Scholz a1607 [precursor, Weyl and automorphisms];
Slavnov a1511-conf;
't Hooft NPB-a1604-in [renormalization].

@ __QED__: Schweber 94;
Dyson PT(05)oct [Bethe];
Kinoshita IJMPA(06) [Tomonaga];
Esposito phy/06,
FP(07)phy/06 [Majorana manuscripts];
Baym & Ozawa PNAS(09)-a0902 [Bohr's argument for electromagnetic field quantization].

@ __QCD__: Adler hp/04/PT;
Gross RMP(05) [Nobel lecture];
Greenberg a0803-proc
[discovery of color degree of freedom];
Tkachov a0904 [quarks, Struminsky's 1965 paper],
comment Petrov a0908,
follow-up Tkachov a0912;
Cao 10; Karl IJMPA(10) [and confinement];
Ali & Kramer EJPH(11)-a1110 [impact of quark and gluon jets];
Leutwyler MPLA(14)-a1211-ln [strong interactions];
Fritzsch MPLA(13)-proc;
Cao MPLA(14);
Gell-Mann MPLA(14);
Crewther IJMPA(15)-a1412-in [non-perturbative understanding of neutral pion decay];
Ellis a1608 [contributions of Guido Altarelli];
de Rújula a1610-conf;
> s.a. lattice QCD.

@ __Quarks__: Zweig IJMPA(10)-a1007 [Gell-Mann];
Gell-Mann IJMPA(13);
news sn(14)jan
[50th anniversary]; Glashow IJMPA(14),
Fritzsch IJMPA(14) [50 years];
Ellis a1409-ch [discovery of gluons];
Ravndal IJMPA(15)-a1411-in [work with Feynman on the parton model];
Petrov a1412;
> s.a. hadrons; QCD
phenomenology.

@ __Weak interactions__: Lee IJMPA(01);
Lesov a0911;
Mohapatra IJMPA(12);
Maiani RNC-a1303 [Cabibbo theory];
Rajasekaran Res(14)-a1403.

@ __Electroweak theory__: Aczel SA(10)nov [Weinberg and the electroweak theory];
Kibble a1502-conf [symmetry breaking].

@ __Other interactions, high-energy physics__: Straumann hp/96-ln;
O'Raifeartaigh 97;
't Hooft ht/98;
Jackiw phy/04 [contributions by Jackiw];
Polyakov ht/04-ch;
Rajasekaran phy/06-conf [Indian contributions];
Schroer EPJH(10)-a0712 [contributions by Swieca].

@ __Specific types of particles__: Rosenfeld PTPS(68) [meson];
Brown PT(86)dec [Yukawa and the meson];
> s.a. photon.

@ __ Specific theoretical topics__: Petrov a0908 [quark color, Soviet contribution];
Pietschmann EPJH(11)-a1101 [current algebra];
Karaca SHPMP(13)
[construction of the Higgs mechanism and emergence of the electroweak theory];
Mättig & Stöltzner a1806 [Higgs particle discovery, epistemic attitudes].

@ __ Specific periods__: Brown et al PT(88)nov [1950s];
Corrigan a0810 [1969, graduate education];
Maiani & Bonolis EPJH(17)-a1705 [1958-1993, esp Italy].

> __Other specific theories__:
see electromagnetism; dirac fields in curved spacetime.

> __Other specific topics__:
see connection; higgs boson;
neutrinos; spin;
symmetries and symmetry breaking.

**Beyond the Standard Model** > s.a. GUTs;
unified theories.

* __String theory__:
The original phenomenological theory described hadrons as elongated
strings, because of the long range forces indicated by the Regge
trajectories; With strings considered as fundamental (anomaly cancellations),
it became extremely popular in the mid-1980s, and made grandiose claims;
Then decrease of interest (J Ehlers: It is in danger of losing contact
with thought experiments!), until duality and M-theory came along.

@ __General references__: O'Raifeartaigh & Straumann RMP(00)hp/98 [Kaluza-Klein theory].

@ __Quantum gravity__: Rovelli gq/00-MG9;
> s.a. history of relativistic physics.

@ __Supersymmetry__: Ramond EPJC(14)-a1401 [the early years (1966-1976)];
Jarlskog a1503 [early roots];
> s.a. supergravity; supersymmetric field theories.

@ __String theory__: Di Vecchia LNP(08)-a0704 [1968-1974];
Freund a0708-conf [two-component hadronic duality precursor];
Di Vecchia & Schwimmer LNP(08)-a0708 [beginning];
Schwarz a0708-ln;
Ramond a0708-ch;
Shapiro a0711-ch;
Musto a0801-ch;
Goddard a0802-ch [from dual models];
Cremmer a0812-ch;
Yoneya a0901-ch [and gravity];
Nielsen a0904-conf [and Veneziano model];
Schwarz a1201-ln [and supersymmetry];
Cappelli et al ed-12;
Rickles 14; Itoyama PTEP-a1604 [early history, Veneziano, Nambu];
Castellani a1802-in [and scientific methodology].

**Experimental Aspects** > s.a. experimental particle physics.

@ __General references__: Amaldi PRP(84) [and nuclear physics];
Taubes 86 [*Z* and *W*];
Dahl 97 [electron];
Krige Isis(01) [heavy bosons];
Giacomelli phy/06-conf [bubble chambers];
Samios IJMPA(10)
[1950s & 1960s, Gell-Mann and discoveries];
Melissinos 12;
Navarro 12 [electron];
Thomas HSNS(12) [interpretive methods, 1930-1950];
Tannenbaum EPJH(16)-a1608 [the search for the *W* and the Higgs].

@ __Facilities, experiments__: Stevens HSPBS(03) [accelerators];
Holmes a1109-conf [Tevatron proton-antiproton collider];
Shiltsev a1307-ch [the first colliders];
Maiani & Bonolis EPJH-a1705 [LHC timeline].

@ __Cosmic-ray physics__: Xu & Brown AJP(87)jan;
Cronin EPJH(11)-a1111 [1953 cosmic-ray conference at Bagnères de Bigorre and beginning of subatomic physics];
> s.a. cosmic rays.

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