Locality in Quantum Mechanics  

In General > s.a. experiments; foundations and interpretations; locality; locality in quantum field theory; localization.
* Idea: Quantum mechanics and relativistic causality imply non-locality.
* Non-locality: Wave-function collapse, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and likely effects due to small-scale spacetime structure; Quantum non-locality is usually tied to the celebrated no-go theorems, including the Kochen-Specker and Bell theorems, as well as elegant refinements by Mermin, Peres, Hardy, GHZ, and many others; Typically entanglement or carefully prepared multipartite systems have been considered essential for violations of local realism and for understanding quantum non-locality; However, sharp violations of local realism arise almost everywhere without entanglement.
* And correlations: The set of non-local correlations known as Popescu-Rohrlich box can be seen as a unit of non-locality.
* Types of non-locality: Entanglement, EPR steering, and the failure of local hidden-variable theories have been shown to be inequivalent; Non-locality can be kinematical, arising from the structure of the Hilbert space, and dynamical, arising from the quantum equations of motion.
* Implementations of locality: de Broglie-Bohm's pilot wave, or parametrized relativistic quantum theory (> see modified quantum mechanics).
* Ways out: Non-locality is only an artifact of considering quantum objects and classical observers (Tipler); Particles described by the Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation cannot be localized and therefore don't violate causality; See also the Marolf + Rovelli model.
@ In general, and non-relativistic: Sorkin pr(83); Groenewold PRP(87); Hoekzema FP(87) [in contextual theories]; Hajra & Bandyopadhyay PLA(91) [and quantization procedure, quantum geometry]; Kar PRA(97) [n spin-1/2]; Healey PhSc(97)mar [Aharonov-Bohm effect]; Strunz et al PRL(99) [stochastic quantum mechanics, high-T environment]; de la Madrid IJTP(07)qp/06 [and rigged Hilbert space]; Ghirardi & Marinatto PRA(06) [Hardy for mixed states]; Laloë in(07)cm/06 [and BEC]; Nikolić qp/07 [algorithmic definition of locality]; Chen & Zhu a0711 [vs realism]; Griffiths FP(11)-a0908 [Einstein locality vs Bell inequalities]; Nisticò & Sestito a1002, FP(11); Stapp FP(12)-a1111; Gallego et al PRL(12)-a1112 [operational framework]; Healey a1207 [there is no conflict between quantum theory and relativity]; Brunner et al RMP-a1303 [rev].
@ Quantum non-locality: Bohm & Hiley FP(75); Brody & de la Peña-Auerbach NCB(79); Stapp AJP(85)apr, FP(88); Clifton FPL(89); Aerts & Reignier HPA(91); Elitzur et al PLA(92); Popescu PRL(94); Rosen AJP(94)feb; Rohrlich & Popescu qp/95; Nogueira et al PS(96); Popescu & Rohrlich qp/97-proc; Mermin AJP(98)oct-qp/97, qp/97; Unruh PRA(99)qp/97, comment Stapp qp/98, PRA(99)qp/98; Hegerfeldt LNP(98)qp, AdP(98)qp-in; Pati qp/98-conf; Sidharth qp/98; Choy & Ziegeler qp/99/AJP; Stapp qp/00/AJP; Dieks PRA(02)qp [inequalities]; Pryde et al PRL(05)qp/04 [without entanglement]; Wiseman CP(06)qp/05 [history, Einstein]; Ghirardi & Marinatto JOB(05)qp-in [without inequalities]; Unruh IJQI(06); Wiseman et al PRL(07) [types]; Scarani PRA(08)-a0712 [Elitzur-Popescu-Rohrlich approach]; Dukaric & Wolf a0808 [non-locality distillation]; Hong a1002; Abramsky SL-a1007 [relational framework]; Ruža PS(10) [non-locality is inconsistent]; Corelli et al PRL(11) [transitivity property]; Cattani a1103 [pedagogical]; He et al PRA(11)-a1103 [detection criteria]; de la Peña et al a1110; Griffiths FP(01)-a1201 [re Stapp's counterfactual argument]; Suarez a1204-in [loophole-free proof]; Palazuelos PRL(12) [non-local state from a combination of local states]; Moldoveanu a1211 [quantum mechanics is non-local and non-realistic]; Griffiths a1304 [quantum mechanics is local]; Pachón & Pachón a1307 [dynamical non-locality, origin]; Ryff a1308 [alternative approach]; Dowker et al NJP(14)-a1311 [histories perspective].
@ And uncertainty: Oppenheim & Wehner Sci(10)nov-a1004; Hänggi & Tomamichel JPA(13)-a1108; Wang & Markham PRL(12)-a1112 [permutation-symmetric states]; Dahlsten et al a1206 [uncertainty as a consequence of locality]; Wu et al PLA(14).
@ Single particle / photon: Hardy PLA(91), PRL(94); Björk et al PRA(01); Drezet FPL(06); Dunningham & Vedral PRL(07) [realizable experiment]; Heaney et al NJP(11)-a0911, comment Ghirardi a1101; Jones & Wiseman PRA(11)-a1102; Laghaout et al PRA(11)-a1110 [limits]; > s.a particle models and quantum particles; photons.
@ Non-locality, other phenomenology: Ne'eman FP(86)-in(88) [and gauge theory]; Stapp AJP(97)apr, comment Finkelstein qp/98, Mashkevich qp/98, Shimony & Stein AJP(01)aug, Stapp AJP(01)aug-qp/00 [acausal propagation]; Saunders et al NJP(12)-a1103 [the simplest demonstrations]; Dumin a1401/AHEP [in cosmology]; Pütz et al a1407 [Bell tests, measurement-dependent locality and free choice].
@ Relativistic: Omnès JMP(97); Zakrzewski JPA(97); Terno qp/02 [and energy density]; Barat & Kimball PLA(03); Slavnov TMP(08); Albert & Galchen SA(09)mar; Ghirardi FP(10)-a0912; Nikolić IJQI-a1002-conf; Crater & Lusanna a1306; Terno PRA(14) [and uncertainty relations]; > s.a. relativistic quantum mechanics; quantum measurement [MR model].
@ Multipartite non-locality: Jones et al PRA(05)qp/04; Parasuram & Ghosh a0903 ≠ Seshadreesan & Ghosh JPA(11) [bipartite spin systems]; Bancal et al PRL(09)-a0903; Almeida et al PRA(10)-a0911; Hastings a1008-ln [many-body systems]; Bancal et al PRL(11)-a1011 [detection]; Cavalcanti et al PRA(11) [unified criteria]; Reid et al a1112; Bancal et al PRA(13)-a1112; Lee et al a1211 [in phase space]; > s.a. networks; quantum systems; spin models.
> Related topics: see Hardy's Experiment; Ontology.

Other References > s.a. particle statistics; quantum technology; realism; time in quantum theory; wave-function collapse.
@ I, II: Nadeau & Kafatos 00; Jacobs & Wiseman AJP(05)oct [short story]; Gisin Sci(09)dec-a0912.
@ Tests: Tittel et al EPL(97)qp [experiment with photons]; Zhu et al a1009 [dynamic vs kinematic non-locality]; Christensen et al PRL(13) [detection-loophole free].
@ Proof: Hardy PRL(93) [two particles]; Boschi et al PRL(97); Hardy in(97) [spin-1/2]; Cabello PRA(98) [ladder, spin-1].
@ And correlations: Clifton et al BJPS(90); Tittel et al PRA(98)qp/97 [> 10 km]; Mermin FP(99)qp/98; Unnikrishnan qp/00; Barrett & Pironio PRL(05)qp [as non-locality units]; Buchholz & Summers PLA(05); Suarez a0902 [why not maximally non-local?]; Christian a1106-ch [photons]; > s.a. EPR correlations.
@ And entanglement: Bennett et al PRA(99)qp/98; Unnikrishnan O&S(01)qp/00-conf; Brunner et al NJP(05)qp/04; Malley & Fine PLA(05)qp; > s.a. XY Chain.
@ And information processing: Forster et al PRL(09) [distilling non-locality in generalized non-signaling theories].
@ And causality: Ruijsenaars AP(81), Bruß et al PRA(00)qp [superluminal propagation]; Mashkevich qp/98; Busch JPA(99)-a1303 [unsharp localization]; Buscemi & Compagno JPB(06)qp; Suarez a1009 [Bell's non-locality and non-locality at detection]; Henson a1102 [without ontic definiteness]; Wagner et al PRA(11) [Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations]; Brunner et al RMP(14)-a1303 [Bell non-locality]; Kupczynski a1312-proc [causality and local determinism]; Hofer-Szabó & Vecsernyés a1407 [Bell's local causality].
@ And Bell's inequality: Jarrett Noûs(84); Stapp qp/99; Pitowsky & Svozil PRA(01); Socolovsky PLA(03)qp; Rizzi qp/03; Hemmick in(11)qp/04 [hidden variables]; Cavalcanti FP(12)-a0911; Hirsch et al PRL(13)-a1307 [hidden non-locality].
@ Quantum mechanics is local: de Muynck et al FP(94), comment Stapp FP(94); De Baere et al FP(99); Bene qp/00-conf; Tommasini JHEP(02)ht; Unnikrishnan FPL(02)qp, qp/02-conf [wave-function collapse]; Clover qp/03; De Baere FP(05)qp; Filk IJTP(06)qp; Weinstein FP(09)-a0812 [model]; Deutsch PRS(12)-a1109.
@ And many-worlds interpretation: Sakaguchi qp/96; Tipler qp/00; Rubin FP(02)qp; Tipler a1008 [as evidence for a multiverse cosmology]; Gisin a1011-conf [non-locality and free will are incompatible with the many-worlds view].
@ And hidden-variable interpretations: Teufel et al PRA(97); > s.a. pilot-wave theory.
@ Recovery of locality in the classical limit: Pagonis et al PLA(91); Gisin et al qp/96-proc; 't Hooft ht/00-in.
@ Related topics: Aharonov & Vaidman PRA(00)qp/99 [fermions vs bosons]; Sant'Anna qp/00 [and quasi-set theory]; Kafatos et al qp/02 [and sheaf cohomology]; van Dam et al IEEE(05)qp/03 [strength of proofs]; Slavnov a0903; > s.a. Free Will.


main pageabbreviationsjournalscommentsother sitesacknowledgements
send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 31 aug 2014