QCD Phenomenology |

**In General** > s.a. history
of particle physics; QCD [vacuum, gluons. finite
temperature]; QCD effects [confinement, quark nuggets, etc].

* __Idea__: The main
strength of QCD is its general structure; It has had many qualitative
confirmations but (few quantitative ones since few calculations can be
analytically done), and reinforces the belief that elegance and uniqueness
are criteria for truth; 2002, Numerical lattice simulations are almost
able to make new predictions.

* __Experimental evidence__:
(1) Results from deep inelastic scattering (in the 1960s at SLAC); (2) The
behavior of the ratio *R* of the hadronic *σ* over the *μ*-pair
production *σ* in *e*^{+}*e*^{−} annihilations; (3) *J*/*ψ*
spectroscopy; (4) 1979, Discovery of gluons at DESY by TASSO and other experiments
at the PETRA collider.

* __Features__:
Fragmentation and Jets (> see Feynman-Fields
Model); Monte Carlo simulation of interactions, using the Lund model.

* __Force__: Because of confinement,
quark behavior can be modeled by a growing potential, e.g., like a spring.

@ __General references__: Potvin AS(91);
Dzierba et al AS(00);
Wilczek hp/02-proc,
AHP(03)phy/02;
Klempt & Zaitsev PRP(07)
[glueballs, hybrids, multiquarks]; Hayes AS(08)
[numerical results]; Brodsky a1010-conf
[topics challenging conventional wisdom]; Satz IJMPA(13)
[observables calculable in QCD and measurable in heavy-ion collisions].

@ __High-energy scattering__: Munier PRP(09) [and statistical physics];
Stasto MPLA(11) [rev].

@ __Astrophysics__: Haskell et al PRL(07)-a0708 [constraints on neutron stars with crystalline colour superconducting cores from LIGO];
Jaffe et al PRD(09)
+ Perez Phy(09)
[worlds with different quark masses];
Xu a1507-proc
[strange matter].

@ __Cosmology__: Florkowski NPA(11)-a1008 [equation of state, and the early universe];
Berera et al a1508
[network of linked flux tubes and inflation]; Borsanyi et al a1606
[lattice QCD, equation of state and topological susceptibility].

@ __Related topics__: Lakhina & Swanson PLB(04)
[gluonic van der Waals force];
Chandrasekharan & Strouthos PRL(05) [mean-field theory, failure for large *N*];
Cho et al ht/05 [effective potential];
Sorella BJP(06)ht/05-conf [gluon dynamical mass];
Acharya ht/06 [mass gap];
Ali & Kramer EPJH(11)-a1012 [jets];
Skands a1104-ln [and collider physics];.

> __Related topics__:
see Glueballs; hadrons [including
quarks]; Large-*N* Limit; Pomeron;
thermodynamics.

**Quark-Gluon Plasma** [term introduced in the late 1970s by
Edward Shuryak] > s.a. quantum-gravity phenomenology.

* __Idea__: A
hypothetical hot, dense soup of single quarks and gluons obtained at *T*_{c}
~ 100–200 MeV/nucleon, last believed to exist naturally in the first
millionth of a second after the Big Bang; Subsequently, as the universe
expanded and cooled, quarks assembled into mesons and baryons, held
together by gluons.

* __2000__: Experiment
at CERN claims to have produced it, but probably premature.

* __2001__: The four
detector groups at RHIC (BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR) talk about
indications.

* __2004__: Many say
that Brookhaven's RHIC has "overwhelming" indications, but lab refuses to
officially announce.

* __2005__: Brookhaven
results puzzling (events too explosive), and the consensus interpretation
is that the fireball is a (classical) liquid of strongly interacting
quarks and gluons, rather than a gas of weakly interacting quarks and
gluons [@ news pn(05)apr].

* __2005__: BNL's
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) produces more evidence for
quark-gluon plasma [@ news pn(06)apr].

@ __News__: Collins & Reichert SA(00)mar
[from CERN]; Quercigh & Rafelski pw(00)oct;
news pw(10)sep
[signal at LHC?]; news pw(11)jun
[temperature]; news pw(12)jan [copper-copper collisions at RHIC].

@ __Books__: Letessier & Rafelski 02;
Yagi et al 06;
Satz 12.

@ __General references__: Antonov PLB(02)ht [loop space formulation];
Balakin a0710-proc;
Shuryak PPNP(09)-a0807 [strongly coupled];
Stephanov PRL(09)
+ Son Phy(09) [critical point];
Braun-Munzinger & Wambach RMP(09) [strongly interacting, phase diagram];
Shuryak Phy(10) [first results from the LHC];
Pratt PRL(12) [deconstructing the quark-gluon plasma].

@ __Phenomenology__: Davidson PhyE(10)-a0807 [as ideal classical fluid, and the early universe];
Petreczky Phy(12),
Ollitrault Phy(15) [fluidlike properties];
Rafelski & Birrell JPCS(14)-a1311 [and the early universe];
> s.a. equation of state.

"A quark-gluon plasma is a bit like pea soup. There aren't any peas in it." – comment on virtual gluons in pw(12)oct post.

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send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 19 mar 2017