QCD – Quantum Chromodynamics  

In General > s.a. Bag Model; lattice gauge theory; QCD phenomenology; standard model [including Cabibbo angle].
* Idea and particle content: A gauge theory of strong interactions with gauge group color SU(2); The interaction is mediated by 8 (massless) gluons, components of an su(3)-valued connection form, while quarks live in an associated bundle on which SU(3) acts; Both quarks and gluons carry color charge.
* Motivation: (1) Deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering indicates structure in hadrons at scales less than 10–16 cm, and half-integer spin constituents; (2) Low energy spectroscopy (> see Eightfold Way) indicates multiplet structure and representations of flavor SU(3) (broken); (3) Excitations of low-lying hadrons and Regge Trajectories; (4) Charmonium and upsilon spectroscopy (the "hydrogen atoms" of elementary particle physics).
> Related topics: see gauge theories; hadrons [quarks].

Theory / Techniques > s.a. anomalies [trace anomaly]; gauge choice; green functions; QCD effects [confinement]; renormalization.
* Asymptotic freedom: The QCD renormalization prediction that the strong coupling constant decreases with increasing energy or momentum transfer, and vanishes at asymptotically high energies.
* Vacuum: The QCD vacuum acts as a superconductor; & Rosenzweig.
@ General references: Heinzl et al PRD(08)-a0806 [ground state]; Dine et al PRD(10) [semiclassical calculations]; Reinhardt & Heffner a1301-conf [effective potential of the Polyakov loop]; Fried MPLA(13) [analytic, gauge-invariant, non-perturbative and rigorous formulation].
@ Hamiltonian formulation: Pavel EPJW(14)-a1405 [low-energy, unconstrained]; Campagnari & Reinhardt PRD(15)-a1507 [Dyson-Schwinger approach]; Reinhardt et al a1706-conf [rev]; > s.a. yang-mills theory [canonical].
@ Perturbative approach: Magradze IJMPA(00) [analytic approach]; Steinhauser PRP(02) [multi-loop]; Van Acoleyen & Verschelde PRD(02) [and Landau pole]; Shirkov & Solovtsov TMP(07) [analytic]; Muta 09; Collins 11; Sazonov a1503-wd [QCD as convergent 5D bosonic vector field theory].
@ Non-perturbative approach: Chakrabarti PhD(03)ht/04 [light-front QCD]; Yamagishi & Zahed PRP(04)ht/97 [non-uniqueness]; Dzhunushaliev a1112; Fried et al AP(12) [new approach to analytic, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant QCD]; > s.a. lattice gauge theory.
@ Vacuum: Sachs PRL(94) [consistency]; van Baal NPPS(98)ht/97; Shuryak 04; Horváth NPB(05), hl/06 [structure]; Cho PLB(06) [knot topology]; Cornwall PRD(07)ht [infrared structure]; Reinhardt PRL(08)-a0803 [dielectric function]; Zou et al PLB(13)-a1302 [topologically inequivalent configurations]; > s.a. instantons.
@ Gluons: Conrady ht/06, ht/06, ht/06 [and monopoles, from lattice field theory]; Bern et al PRD(14)-a1406 [low-enery behavior]; Lowdon a1702 [propagator, non-perturbative structure]; > s.a. gravitons [scattering].
@ Topological features: 't Hooft ht/98-ln; 't Hooft & Bruckmann ht/00-ln [rev, including confinement]; Bruckmann EPJST(07)-a0706-ln.
@ At finite temperature: Gross, Pisarski & Yaffe RMP(81) [and instantons]; Grandou MPLA(10) [high-temperature limit]; Frasca eConf-a1110 [low-energy limit]; Reinhardt et al PRD(11)-a1107 [variational approach]; Maas PRP(13) [rev].
@ Asymptotic freedom: Wilczek ht/96; Gross NPPS(99)ht/98; 't Hooft NPPS(99)ht/98; Seiler ht/03 [case against]; Wilczek RMP(05)hp; Bethke PPNP(07)he/06 [experimental tests, rev]; Grozin a0803 [history and interpretation]; Gallavotti JSP(14)-a1405; Sannino a1511 [challenging asymptotic freedom]; > s.a. matter phenomenology in quantum gravity.
@ Phase diagram: Hands CP(01); Schäfer PAN(12)-a1102 [role of quantum fluctuations]; Schmidt & Sharma a1701 [rev]; > s.a. QCD phenomenology.
@ Related topics: Ho ht/95, Lunev JMP(96)ht/95 [geometrical]; Belitsky et al IJMPA(04)ht-in [integrability]; Magpantay ht/04 [stochastic background]; Glozman a1608-proc [hidden classical symmetry]; > s.a. Large-N Limit; parity [violation].

References > s.a. GUTs [including p decay]; history of particle physics; standard model; string phenomenology.
@ II: Glashow SA(75)oct; Georgi PT(88)apr; Wilczek PT(00)aug; Jacak pw(09)sep; Aitchison & Hey 12.
@ III: Greiner & Schäfer 95; Smilga 01; Dissertori et al 03 [theory and phenomenology, r PT(04)aug]; Narison 03; Grozin 07; Ioffe et al 10.
@ Texts: Kokkedee 69; Close 79; Yndurain 83 [including phenomenology]; Nambu 85; Artuso 14 [heavy-flavor physics]; Quigg 13.
@ Reviews: Lipkin PRP(73); Altarelli PRP(82); Close PS(82); Wilczek ARNPS(82), AHP(03)phy/02; Shifman ed-01; Fleming IJMPA(05); Shifman IJMPA(06)ht-in; Marchesini IJMPA(07) [especially for LHC]; Greenberg in(09)-a0805 [color charge]; Kronfeld & Quigg AJP(10)nov [RL]; Skands a1207-ln [intro].
@ Lower-dimensional: Bassetto ht/98-proc [1+1]; Rajeev & Turgut CMP(98) [geometrical quantization]; in Nair ht/98-conf [2+1]; Olesen NPB(06)ht [2D, tunneling].
@ Loop space: Polyakov PLB(79), NPB(80), 87; Antonov IJMPA(97).
@ In curved spacetime: Kharzeev et al PLB(02); Lee et al a1503 [gluon propagation and phenomenology].
@ Related topics: Shankar PRL(84) [solvable analog]; Cline SA(88)aug [4th family]; Brodsky et al PRP(98) [on the light cone]; Wilczek NPA(00)hp/99-in [high density, rev]; Nardulli RNC(02) [very high density]; Nussinov & Lampert PRP(02) [inequalities]; Di Giacomo et al PRP(02) [field correlators]; Sánchez-Monroy & Quimbay ht/06 [classical version and equations of motion]; Cho et al MPLA(07) [restricted, BRST-Dirac quantization]; Brodsky a1202-conf.

Variations > s a. string phenomenology [corrections]; & Alternatives: Preparata.
* Tensorgluons: Proposed particles inside hadrons which carry the same charges as gluons but have larger spin.
@ Holographic dual: de Teramond & Brodsky PRL(05)ht [hadronic spectrum]; Gursoy & Kiritsis JHEP(08)-a0707, et al JHEP(08)-a0707 [5D].
@ Other variations: Walker PLB(08)-a0706 [extension to SU(N)]; Konitopoulos & Savvidy a1503 [tensorgluons, and nucleon spin].

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