History
of Relativistic Gravity |

**In General ** > s.a. general
relativity / mach's principle; tests
of general relativity; tests
with orbiting bodies.

* __Einstein__: Einstein arrived at his field equations for
gravitation partly by a physical strategy including the Newtonian limit,
the electromagnetic analogy, and energy conservation; He first found them
in 1913, but he initially thought they must be wrong, because of the hole
argument and because of some incorrect calculations on the Newtonian
limit; He settled on the field equations, and checked that they gave the
correct perihelion advance for Mercury, during a series of four weekly
lectures to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin culminating in the
final lecture of November 25, 2015.

* __Early work__:
The first few decades saw calculations of the simplest physical consequences, like propagation of light,
correction to planet orbits, simple cosmologies; The formulation in terms
of modern differential geometry came with @ Lichnerowicz 55.

* __Lie group methods__:
Introduced into cosmology by Gödel (> see gödel
solution) and Taub (> see Taub-NUT
solution).

* __1980s__: Links were
developed with astrophysics, gauge theory, particle physics; General
relativity became a more balanced (but also chaotic) field, and more
confidence in the classical theory made it less necessary to look for
alternatives before quantizing.

@ __General references__: Mehra 74;
Chandrasekhar AJP(79)mar;
Torretti 83; Hickman IJTP(84)
[and electrodynamics]; Pyenson 85;
Stachel in(86);
Glick ed-87; Ray 87;
Bergmann in(89);
Howard & Stachel ed-89;
Eisenstaedt & Kox ed-92;
Earman et al 93; Hu HSPBS(04)
[criticism in China]; Kox & Eisenstaedt ed-05;
Dadhich phy/05
[and the future]; Crelinsten 06;
Eisenstaedt 06;
Renn 07; Ellis in-a1509, news sn(15)oct
[100 years]; Goenner GRG(17)-a1607
[remarks]; Dadhich fs(17)-a1609; Debono & Smoot Univ(16)-a1609 [status and future directions]; Ni ch(16)-a1612.

@ __After 1915__: Schutz in(12)-a1203
[isolation during the 1930s-1950s and subsequent reinvigoration]; Ashtekar
GRG(14)-a1312
[advances 1962-2013]; Wazeck 14
[1920s opposition]; Will APS(15)
[re centennial]; Trimble a1711 [the impact of World War I].

@ __Dynamics__: Logunov et al PU(04)phy
[field equations]; Ostermann gq/04
[variational principle]; Ebner phy/06
[Hilbert's derivation of the field equation]; Choquet-Bruhat a1410
[Cauchy problem, early work]; Deser PS(15)-a1501
[ADM formulation] Choquet-Bruhat CQG+(15)
[initial-value formulation].

@ __Differing views__: Coleman phy/05
[Synge on Whitehead's 1922 Principle of Relativity], a0704
[Whitehead's theory].

@ __Quantum gravity__: Rüger HSPS(88)
[quantum spacetime]; Gorelik in(92);
Rovelli gq/00-MG9;
DeWitt
GRG(09)-a0805;
Misner GRG(09)
[Wheeler];
Gorelik PU(05) + webpage
[Bronstein]; Rocci JPCS(13)-a1309
[first speculations, 1916-1930]; Pullin CQG(15)-a1505
[the ADM papers and loop quantum gravity]; > s.a. history of quantum theory [field theory in curved spacetime].

@ __Conceptual__: Renn Isis(04)
[and
historical epistemology]; Lombardi in(07)-a0705
[and conception of reality].

@ __Specific topics__: Halpern 04
[higher dimensions]; Ravndal a1309 [5th dimension]; Pitts SHPMP(16)-a1604
[Einstein, symmetries, conservation laws, and particle physics];
> s.a. kerr metric; singularities.

> __Online resources__:
see St-Andrews University page;
Perimeter Institute June 2015 lecture
by Jürgen Renn.

**Milestones ** [@ see Will CQG(15)] > s.a. history of relativistic
cosmology.

* __1859__: Precursor,
Le Verrier discovers the Mercury perihelion advance anomaly.

* __1915__: Publication of Einstein's paper on general relativity.

* __1919__: Measurement of the deflection of light by the Sun [@ Will CQG(15)-a1409].

* __1929__: Hubble's observation of the expansion of the universe [@ MacCallum CQG(15)].

* __1952__: Yvonne Choquet-Brouhat's work on the initial value problem [@ Ringström CQG(15)].

* __1959__: The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) paper [@ Pullin CQG(15)].

* __1963__: The Wheeler-DeWitt equation [@ Rovelli CQG(15)]; The Kerr metric [@ Teukolsky CQG(15)].

* __1965__: Discovery of the cosmic background radiation [@ Durrer CQG(15)]; The singularity theorems [@ Senovilla & Garfinkle CQG(15)].

* __1970__: Joe Weber's
'announcement' of gravitational-wave detection.

* __1973__: First developments in black-hole thermodynamics.

* __1974__: Discovery of the binary pulsar by Hulse & Taylor [@ Damour CQG(15)].

* __1997__:
Einstein/Hilbert paternity suit settled by paper proofs [@ Corry et al Sci(97)nov];
Frame dragging observation [@ news pn(97)nov].

* __1998__: The AdS/CFT correspondence [@ Hubeny CQG(15)].

* __2000__: The
interferometric gravitational wave detectors began their runs to
accumulate data.

* __2005__: Numerical relativity breakthrough for binary black holes [@ Sperhake CQG(15)].

* __2016__: LIGO announces the first direct detections of gravitational waves; MICROSCOPE satellite launched; LISA Pathfinder demonstrates key technologies.

**Specific People, Places and Events**

@ __ General references__: Almassi SHPMP(09)
[Eddington's
expedition and British acceptance]; Gangui & Ortiz RBHC-a1203
[Argentina in the 1920s]; Janis GRG(11)
[Syracuse in the mid-1950s]; van Besouw & van Dongen a1311-fs
[reception in the Netherlands]; Dadhich CS-a1511
[post-independence India]; Goenner a1607
[Germany from 1915 to the 1990s].

@ __Einstein__: Sauer AHES(99)phy/98
[Einstein-Hilbert question]; Sauer phy/04
[Einstein 1916]; Todorov talk-phy/05
[Einstein & Hilbert]; Schücking a0903
[Einstein's first principle of equivalence, 1907]; Straumann AdP(11)-a1106
[Einstein's "Zürich notebook"]; Weinstein a1201,
a1201, a1201
[from the 1914 Einstein-Grossmann theory to Einstein's 1916 general
relativity]; Weinstein a1202
[Einstein's 1912-1913 struggles]; Weinstein a1202
[Einstein and Levi-Civita, 1914]; Weinstein a1204
[Grossmann's help, 1912-1914]; Giulini a1306-conf
[Einstein's "Prague field equation"]; Weinstein a1310
[and the conservation of energy-momentum]; Weinstein a1310
[Einstein's 1916 derivation of the field equations]; Betancort-Rijo &
Jiménez a1410
[Einstein's first field equation]; Weinstein a1411
[Einstein and Schwarzschild, 1915-1916]; Weinstein a1412
[and Hilbert]; Janssen & Renn PT(15)oct;
Weinstein a1511
[the two-body problem as a heuristic guide for other work]; Smolin a1512;
Walters a1608; Dieks a1801 [intuition and derivations]; > s.a. equivalence principle.

@ __Other personal contributions__: Deser IJMPA(04)gq/03
[Dirac]; Brading & Ryckman SHPMP(08)
[Hilbert's
axiomatic approach]; Rindler AJP(09)jun
[Gödel's solution and implications]; Sauer a1312-MG13
[Marcel Grossmann]; Milton CJP(14)-a1312
[Julian Schwinger].

**Other Theories of Gravity** > s.a. Scalar
Theory; scalar-tensor theories;
unimodular gravity.

@ __References__: Norton AHES(92)
[general
relativity and Nordström's scalar theory].

**Tests and Phenomenology** > s.a. cosmology;
kaluza-klein theory; pulsars.

@ __General references__: Peebles EPJH-a1603
[Robert Dicke].

@ __Gravitational waves__: Collins HSPBS(03)
[LIGO]; Saulson GRG(11)
[physical reality]; Kennefick a1407-conf
[role of the binary pulsar]; Berti Phy(16)
[background to first detection]; Weinstein a1602
[Einstein in 1916-1918]; Holst et al BAMS-a1607 [historical overview of gravitational-wave science]; Cervantes-Cota et al Univ(16)-a1609; Chen et al ChJP(17)-a1610; news forbes(17)mar [physical reality, Feynman and the sticky bead argument].

@ __Black holes__: Miller 05;
Baumgarte AIP(06)ap,
Carter AIP(06)gq;
Kundt GRG(09)-a0905;
Trimble a1411-IAU
[early quest]; blog pt(15)sep
[thermodynamics and information]; Ortega-Rodríguez et al PiP(17)-a1703 [contributions of J Robert Oppenheimer]; > s.a. schwarzschild
black hole.

@ __1919 eclipse and light deflection__: Coles ASP-ap/01;
Kennefick a0709-proc,
PT(09)mar;
Will CQG(15)-a1409.

@ __Other phenomenology__: Pfister GRG(07)
[Lense-Thirring
effect];
> s.a. gravitational lensing.

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