Higgs Mechanism and Higgs Bosons  

Higgs Mechanism > s.a. symmetry breaking.
* Idea: A mechanism by which one can give a mass to the otherwise massless Goldstone bosons arising from the spontaneous breaking of some symmetry group; Analogous to the formation of Cooper pairs in a superconductor, giving mass to the photon (it is not a fundamental field, and disappears above T0).
* Gravitational version: Spacetime arises due to the dynamical breaking of diffeomorphism invariance in the early universe, with the connection and metric as Goldstone/Higgs bosons.
@ General references: Nambu & Jona-Lasinio PRL(61) [precursor work]; Higgs PL(64), PRL(64); Klein & Lee PRL(64); Englert & Brout PRL(64); Higgs PR(66); Sardanashvily IJGMP(06) [geometry]; Smeenk PhSc(06)dec [gauge-invariant content]; Lyre a0806 [criticism]; news nat(10)aug [split over credit for theorists]; Bernstein AJP(11)jan; Struyve SHPMP(11) [gauge-invariant accounts]; Carroll 12; Baggott 12; Organtini EJP(12) [undergraduate introduction]; news bbc(13)apr [call to rename the particle]; Friedrich et al Synth(14)-a1302 [on the criticism that the Higgs mechanism is ad hoc]; Sardanashvily & Kurov a1312 [matter fields, geometric]; Mannheim a1610-PPNP [and implications].
@ Alternatives: Biswas a0909; Calmet IJMPA(11); Alexandre & Mavromatos PRD(11) [Lorentz-violating]; > s.a. kaluza-klein theory.
@ Gravitational version: Percacci NPB(91)-a0712; Kakushadze & Langfelder MPLA(00)ht; Consoli hp/01 [Newtonian gravity from Higgs field], hp/02 [general relativity from Higgs condensate]; Kirsch PRD(05)ht; Leclerc AP(06) [gauge theory of gravity]; Boulanger & Kirsch PRD(06)ht/06; Arkani-Hamed et al JHEP(07) [low-energy dynamics]; 't Hooft a0708 [unitarity, and QCD]; Kakushadze IJMPA(08)-a0709 [and massive gravity], IJGMP(08) [massless limit]; Oda a0709 [with Polyakov-type scalar field action]; PirinÁçioğlu GRG(12)-a0908; Chamseddine & Mukhanov JHEP(10)-a1002; Oda a1003, PLB(10); Klusoň CQG(11)-a1005 [canonical description]; Berezhiani & Mirbabayi PRD(11)-a1010 [unitarity check]; Arraut EPL(15)-a1509 [as a Vainshtein mechanism]; Alexander et al CQG(16)-a1602; > s.a. Induced Gravity; massive gravity.
@ Other variations: Flachi & Toms PLB(00) [in Randall-Sundrum]; Petriello NPB(01)ht [non-commutative]; Slavnov TMP(06) [and extra dimensions]; Nakanishi PTP(07)-a0704 [unphysical, and Lorentz invariance violation]; Porto & Zee PLB(08)-a0712 [a private Higgs field for each fermion]; Wanng a0801; Devastato et al FdP-a1404-proc [in non-commutative geometry]; > s.a. kaluza-klein models.
@ Related topics: Gassner & Lesch IJTP(08)-ap/06 [bounds on time variation of expectation value]; Donoghue et al PRD(10)-a0903 [anthropic constraints on the vacuum expectation value]; Dütsch a1502-proc [compatibility with renormalization group flow].

Higgs Bosons > s.a. electroweak theory.
* Idea: The particles responsible, through the Higgs mechanism, for giving mass to quarks and intermediate bosons in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory, breaking the symmetry with a non-zero vacuum expectation value.
* Remark: There should be at least 4 Higgs bosons (a complex doublet), but 3 show up only as the longitudinal modes of the Ws and Z0; In the MSSM, one needs two complex doublets, and there may be extra fields, such as a Higgs singlet.
* 1997: According to Gordon Kane (University of Michigan), high-precision experiments at LEP, Fermilab, and SLAC now support the claim, for the first time with any statistical weight, that the Higgs does exist; The supersymmetry model [@ news pn(96)apr] of particle interactions predicts that the Higgs mass should be less than about 150 GeV; LEP could by 1999 have spotted the Higgs if its mass were no more than 95 GeV; Fermilab (with its new much more intense beams) could probe for a Higgs mass up to 130 GeV by 2002; The LHC at CERN could extend the range up to 150 GeV by 2010.
* 1999: Rumors of detection by OPAL at LEP, with mH ~ 91 GeV.
* 2000: More rumors of detection at LEP, with mH ~ 115 GeV; CERN delays LEP shutdown by a month; LEP data eventually show that mH > 114 GeV.
* 2001: Fermilab's Tevatron resumes operations in March for five years, and can search up to 180 GeV.
* 2004: Estimated 115 GeV < mH < 251 GeV, with best fit to top data from D0 at tevatron at 117 GeV; Tevatron Run II has a chance of finding it, otherwise LHC in 2007.
* 2009: Estimated 114 GeV < mH < 185 GeV, from LEP data and theoretical analysis, respectively; Fermilab's CDF and D0 experiments exclude the region 156–177 GeV.
* 2011: Using CMS and ATLAS results, the focus now is on the mass range between 115.5 and 127 GeV; December hints from LHC at 125-126 GeV?
* 2012: The standard model is viable iff the standard-model Higgs boson has m between 114 and 147 GeV; Reported discovery at 125 GeV, with s = 0 or 2.
* 2013: Nobel prize to P Higgs and F Englert for their work leading to the discovery of the Higgs boson.
* 2014: Improved data analysis from LHC collaborations gives mH = 125.36 ± 0.37 (statistical) ± 0.18 (systematic) GeV.
* 2015: Combined analyses from different teams yield a Higgs boson mass of 125.09 ± 0.24 GeV, spin s = 0.
@ General references: Veltman SA(86)nov; Aitchison PW(89)jul; L3 collaboration, ALEPH collab PLB(00) [discovery?]; Hanson Phy(09) [review]; Gunion IJMPA(10) [motivation]; Schlatter & Zerwas EPJH(12)-a1112 [review]; Haber Phy(12) [status]; news symm(12)mar [10 facts]; news ns(12)mar [naming issue]; blog atl(12)jul [why some physicists doubt the existence of the Higgs boson]; Carmi et al JHEP(12)-a1207 [discovery, status report]; Close CP(12) [context and implications]; news ng(13)mar [confirmation]; Falkowski et al JHEP(13)-a1303 [update]; Lykken & Spiropulu PT(13)dec [overview, implications]; Quigg Phy(15) [more precise mass, and consequences]; news sn(16)aug [mode details].
@ History: Ellis et al a1201; Allen a1306, PS(14) [and prospects for new physics]; Moffat 14; Barth et al a1402 [bibliometric perspective]; Wu MPLA(14)-a1403, a1410-in; Wells a1609 [theoretical physics ecosystem behind the discovery].
@ Searches, experiments: Collins SA(01)feb [CERN shutdown]; LEP collaborations PLB(03) [results]; Kane SA(05)jul [search]; Parker pw(06)oct, news pn(08)apr, news indep(08)apr [search with LHC]; He et al PRL(07), news pw(07)mar [hints at Fermilab?]; Jakobs & Schumacher IJMPA(08) [prospects at LHC]; CDF & D0 a0903-conf and PT(09)apr; Jackson et al JCAP(10)-a0912 [production in dark-matter annihilations]; Aaltonen et CDF + D0 PRL(10) + Mönig Phy(10) [Fermilab Tevatron data exclude the mass range 162–166 GeV]; news cbc(11)apr, tg(11)may [discovery rumors quelled]; CDF & D0 collaborations a1107-conf + news et(11)aug [motivation and status], bbc(11)aug, guardian(11)aug [signals fade]; news ns(11)aug [don't panic yet]; news nyt(11)dec, bbc(11)dec, nyt(12)mar [glimpse]; news sp(12)jul, pw(12)jul [maybe!]; news dj(12)jul [maybe not]; ATLAS Collaboration PLB(12)-a1207, CMS Collaboration PLB(12)-a1207 [new s ≠ 1 boson with M = 125 GeV]; news bbc(12)aug, SA(12)sep [evidence stronger]; news ns(12)nov [no hints at new physics beyond standard model Higgs]; Green IJMPA(13) [search and discovery]; news ibt(14)nov [was the discovered particle a techni-higgs?].
@ Condensed-matter analogs: San-Jose et al PRL(11) + news pw(11)feb [clues from ripples on a sheet of graphene]; news at(12)jul [in an optical lattice of ultracold rubidium atoms].
@ Coupling to gravity: Atkins & Calmet PRL(13)-a1211 [non-minimal]; Fuzfa et al PRL(13)-a1305, Schlögel et al PRD(14)-a1405 [Higgs monopoles, spherically symmetric particlelike solutions]; Czerwińska et al a1512-MG14 [and the stability of the Higgs sector].
@ Astrophysics and cosmology: Kujat & Scherrer PRD(00)ap/99 [and the cmb]; Popa a0910 [bounds on mass from astrophysics and cosmology]; Stojković IJMPD(13)-a1305-GRF [implications]; Huang IJMPA(14) [dark energy and dark matter]; Moss a1507 [and cosmology]; > s.a. inflationary scenarios.
@ Related topics: Miller et al PLB(01) [measuring the spin]; Nayak & Smith PRD(06)hp [from black holes at the LHC]; Faddeev ch(09)-a0811-conf [alternative interpretation]; Canarutto AHP(14)-a1407 [as a member of a larger family]; > s.a. branes; mass; matter [matter-antimatter asymmetry].

main pageabbreviationsjournalscommentsother sitesacknowledgements
send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 28 oct 2016