Higgs Mechanism and Higgs Bosons |

**Higgs Mechanism** > s.a. symmetry
breaking.

* __Idea__: A mechanism
by which one can give a mass to the otherwise massless Goldstone bosons arising
from the spontaneous breaking of some symmetry group; Analogous to the formation
of Cooper pairs in a superconductor, giving mass to the photon (it is not
a
fundamental field, and disappears above *T*_{0}).

* __Gravitational version__:
Spacetime arises due to the dynamical breaking of diffeomorphism invariance
in the early universe, with the connection
and metric as Goldstone/Higgs bosons.

@ __General references__: Nambu & Jona-Lasinio PRL(61) [precursor work]; Higgs PL(64), PRL(64);
Klein & Lee PRL(64);
Englert & Brout PRL(64);
Higgs PR(66);
Sardanashvily IJGMP(06)
[geometry]; Smeenk PhSc(06)dec
[gauge-invariant content]; Lyre a0806 [criticism];
news nat(10)aug [split over credit for theorists]; Bernstein AJP(11)jan; Struyve SHPMP(11) [gauge-invariant accounts]; Carroll 12; Baggott 12; Organtini EJP(12) [undergraduate introduction]; news bbc(13)apr [call to rename the particle]; Friedrich et al Synth(14)-a1302 [on the criticism that the Higgs mechanism is ad hoc]; Sardanashvily & Kurov a1312 [matter fields, geometric]; Mannheim a1610-PPNP [and implications].

@ __Alternatives__: Biswas a0909; Calmet IJMPA(11); Alexandre & Mavromatos PRD(11) [Lorentz-violating]; > s.a. kaluza-klein
theory.

@ __Gravitational version__: Percacci NPB(91)-a0712;
Kakushadze & Langfelder MPLA(00)ht;
Consoli hp/01 [Newtonian
gravity from Higgs field], hp/02 [general
relativity from Higgs condensate]; Kirsch PRD(05)ht;
Leclerc AP(06)
[gauge theory of gravity]; Boulanger & Kirsch PRD(06)ht/06;
Arkani-Hamed et al JHEP(07)
[low-energy dynamics]; 't Hooft a0708 [unitarity,
and QCD]; Kakushadze IJMPA(08)-a0709 [and
massive gravity], IJGMP(08)
[massless limit]; Oda a0709 [with
Polyakov-type scalar field action]; Pirinççioğlu GRG(12)-a0908;
Chamseddine & Mukhanov JHEP(10)-a1002;
Oda a1003, PLB(10);
Klusoň CQG(11)-a1005 [canonical
description]; Berezhiani & Mirbabayi PRD(11)-a1010 [unitarity check]; Arraut EPL(15)-a1509 [as a Vainshtein mechanism]; Alexander et al CQG(16)-a1602; > s.a. Induced
Gravity; massive gravity.

@ __Other variations__: Flachi & Toms PLB(00)
[in Randall-Sundrum]; Petriello NPB(01)ht [non-commutative];
Slavnov TMP(06)
[and extra dimensions]; Nakanishi PTP(07)-a0704 [unphysical,
and Lorentz invariance violation]; Porto & Zee PLB(08)-a0712 [a
private Higgs field for
each fermion]; Wanng a0801;
Devastato et al FdP-a1404-proc [in non-commutative geometry]; > s.a. kaluza-klein models.

@ __Related topics__: Gassner & Lesch IJTP(08)-ap/06 [bounds on time variation of expectation value]; Donoghue et al PRD(10)-a0903 [anthropic
constraints on the vacuum expectation value]; Dütsch a1502-proc [compatibility with renormalization group flow].

**Higgs Bosons** > s.a. electroweak
theory.

* __Idea__: The particles responsible, through the Higgs mechanism, for
giving mass to quarks and intermediate bosons in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak
theory, breaking the symmetry with a non-zero vacuum expectation value.

* __Remark__: There should
be at least 4 Higgs bosons (a complex doublet), but 3 show up only as the
longitudinal modes of the *W*s and *Z*^{0}; In
the MSSM, one needs two complex doublets, and there may be extra fields, such
as a Higgs singlet.

* __1997__: According to Gordon
Kane (University of Michigan), high-precision experiments at LEP, Fermilab, and SLAC now
support the claim, for the first time with any
statistical weight, that the Higgs does exist; The supersymmetry
model
[@ news pn(96)apr]
of particle interactions predicts that the Higgs mass should
be
less than about 150 GeV; LEP could by 1999 have spotted the Higgs if its mass
were no more than 95 GeV; Fermilab (with its new much more intense beams) could
probe for a Higgs mass up to 130 GeV by 2002; The LHC
at CERN could extend the range up to 150 GeV by 2010.

* __1999__: Rumors of detection
by OPAL at LEP, with *m*_{H} ~ 91 GeV.

* __2000__: More rumors of
detection at LEP, with *m*_{H} ~
115 GeV; CERN delays LEP shutdown by a month; LEP data eventually show that *m*_{H} > 114
GeV.

* __2001__: Fermilab's Tevatron resumes operations in March for five years,
and can search up to 180 GeV.

* __2004__: Estimated 115 GeV
< *m*_{H} < 251
GeV, with best fit to top data from D0 at tevatron at 117 GeV; Tevatron Run II
has a chance of finding it, otherwise LHC in 2007.

* __2009__: Estimated 114 GeV
< *m*_{H} < 185
GeV, from LEP data and theoretical analysis, respectively; Fermilab's CDF
and D0 experiments exclude the region 156–177 GeV.

* __2011__: Using CMS and ATLAS results, the focus now is on the mass range between 115.5 and 127 GeV; December hints from LHC at 125-126 GeV?

* __2012__: The standard model is viable iff the standard-model Higgs boson has *m* between 114 and 147 GeV; Reported discovery at 125 GeV, with *s* = 0 or 2.

* __2013__: Nobel prize to P Higgs and F Englert for their work leading to the discovery of the Higgs boson.

* __2014__: Improved data analysis from LHC collaborations gives *m*_{H} = 125.36 ± 0.37 (statistical) ± 0.18 (systematic) GeV.

* __2015__: Combined analyses from different teams yield a Higgs boson mass of 125.09 ± 0.24 GeV, spin *s* = 0.

@ __General references__: Veltman SA(86)nov; Aitchison PW(89)jul;
L3 collaboration, ALEPH collab PLB(00)
[discovery?]; Hanson Phy(09) [review];
Gunion IJMPA(10) [motivation]; Schlatter & Zerwas EPJH(12)-a1112 [review]; Haber Phy(12) [status]; news symm(12)mar [10 facts]; news ns(12)mar [naming issue]; blog atl(12)jul [why some physicists doubt the existence of the Higgs boson]; Carmi et al JHEP(12)-a1207 [discovery, status report]; Close CP(12) [context and implications]; news ng(13)mar [confirmation]; Falkowski et al JHEP(13)-a1303 [update]; Lykken & Spiropulu PT(13)dec [overview, implications]; Quigg Phy(15) [more precise mass, and consequences]; news sn(16)aug [mode details].

@ __History__:
Ellis et al a1201; Allen a1306, PS(14) [and prospects for new physics]; Moffat 14; Barth et al a1402 [bibliometric perspective]; Wu MPLA(14)-a1403, a1410-in; Wells a1609 [theoretical physics ecosystem behind the discovery].

@ __Searches, experiments__: Collins SA(01)feb [CERN shutdown]; LEP collaborations PLB(03) [results]; Kane SA(05)jul
[search]; Parker pw(06)oct,
news pn(08)apr,
news indep(08)apr
[search with LHC]; He et al PRL(07),
news pw(07)mar
[hints at Fermilab?]; Jakobs & Schumacher IJMPA(08)
[prospects at LHC];
CDF & D0 a0903-conf
and PT(09)apr; Jackson et al JCAP(10)-a0912 [production
in dark-matter annihilations]; Aaltonen et CDF + D0 PRL(10)
+ Mönig Phy(10) [Fermilab Tevatron data exclude the mass range 162–166 GeV]; news cbc(11)apr, tg(11)may [discovery rumors quelled]; CDF & D0 collaborations a1107-conf + news et(11)aug [motivation and status], bbc(11)aug, guardian(11)aug [signals fade]; news ns(11)aug [don't panic yet]; news nyt(11)dec, bbc(11)dec, nyt(12)mar [glimpse]; news sp(12)jul, pw(12)jul [maybe!]; news dj(12)jul [maybe not]; ATLAS Collaboration PLB(12)-a1207, CMS Collaboration PLB(12)-a1207 [new *s* ≠ 1 boson with *M* = 125 GeV]; news bbc(12)aug, SA(12)sep [evidence stronger]; news ns(12)nov [no hints at new physics beyond standard model Higgs]; Green IJMPA(13) [search and discovery]; news ibt(14)nov [was the discovered particle a techni-higgs?].

@ __Condensed-matter analogs__:
San-Jose et al PRL(11) + news pw(11)feb [clues from ripples on a sheet of graphene];
news at(12)jul [in an optical lattice of ultracold rubidium atoms].

@ __Coupling to gravity__:
Atkins & Calmet PRL(13)-a1211 [non-minimal]; Fuzfa et al PRL(13)-a1305, Schlögel et al PRD(14)-a1405 [Higgs monopoles, spherically symmetric particlelike solutions]; Czerwińska et al a1512-MG14 [and the stability of the Higgs sector].

@ __Astrophysics and cosmology__: Kujat & Scherrer PRD(00)ap/99 [and
the cmb]; Popa a0910 [bounds on mass from astrophysics and
cosmology]; Stojković IJMPD(13)-a1305-GRF [implications];
Huang IJMPA(14) [dark energy and dark matter];
Moss a1507 [and cosmology];
> s.a. inflationary scenarios.

@ __Related topics__: Miller et al PLB(01)
[measuring
the spin]; Nayak & Smith PRD(06)hp [from
black holes at the LHC]; Faddeev ch(09)-a0811-conf
[alternative interpretation]; Canarutto AHP(14)-a1407 [as a member of a larger family];
> s.a. branes; mass;
matter [matter-antimatter asymmetry].

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