Topics, X

X Rays > s.a. X-ray astronomy.
* Idea: Energetic photons, usually coming from electronic transitions to deep-lying atomic levels, with energies in the KeV range.
* History: Discovered by Röntgen in 1895.
* Applications: Crystallography by X-ray diffraction (Bragg scattering); Medical imaging; Astronomy and astrophysics.
@ General references: issue PT(95)nov; Farmelo SA(95)nov [discovery]; Altarelli et al SA(98)dec [ultrabright sources]; Cesareo RNC(00) [and matter]; Als-Nielsen & McMorrow 11 [1st ed r PT(02)mar]; Falcone et al PRS(11) [microscopy]; Gruner PT(12)dec [imaging detectors].
@ Phase imaging: Nugent et al PRL(96) + pn(06)sep; Fitzgerald PT(00)jul.
@ Applications: news bnl(13)jan [X-ray analysis of old paintings]; news pw(13)jul [zeptosecond (10–21 s) X-ray pulses to probe inner electrons and nuclear processes]; Jones CP(13) [crystallography].
@ Related topics: Miao et al Nat(99)jul + pn(99)aug [diffraction from non-crystals]; news at(12)feb [electromagnetically-induced transparency of iron].
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

Xenon > see elements.

XX Chain / Model > see quantum phase transitions.

XXX Model
@ References: Deguchi JPA(01)cm; Belliard & Crampé Sigma(13)-a1309 [with general boundaries].

XXZ Chain / Model > see spin models; entanglement entropy.

XY Chain / Model > s.a. spin models.
@ General references: Denbigh JPA(78) [partition function]; Dhahri JPA(08) [+ bath]; Oliveira-Neto et al JPA(09) [on a 2D random Voronoi-Delaunay lattice]; Campos & Roncaglia PRA(10) [equivalence between XY chain and dimerized models]; Batle & Casas PRA(10)-a1007 [non-locality and entanglement]; Prabhu et al PRA(11) [disorder and multipartite entanglement].
@ Phase transitions: Messager & Molchanov JSP(06) [non-linear XY model with first and second-order phase transition]; Farber & Fromm JAMS-a1010 [anti-ferromagnetic, topological approach]
@ Entropy: Aschbacher LMP(07) [non-equilibrium steady-state entropy]; Franchini et al JPA(08)-a0707, Its & Korepin TMP(10) [Rényi entropy]; > s.a. entanglement entropy.
> Related Topics: see correlations; quantum phase transitions.
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

main pageabbreviationsjournalscommentsother sitesacknowledgements
send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at – modified 10 oct 2015