The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Experiment and Paradox  

In General > s.a. correlations; quantum information; wigner functions.
* Idea: An argument that could be called Einstein's reality-locality-completeness theorem, since it proves that one of these three properties must be false for quantum mechanics.
* Remark: It is a paradox only if we assume that (e.g., in the decay π0e+e) Alice's measurement of the spin of one particle makes the spin of the other one an element of reality.
@ Reviews, books: Mermin PT(85)apr; Selleri ed-88; Roussel qp/03-in; Socolovsky qp/05; Gisin qp/07-fs; Szabó a0712-iep; Blaylock AJP(10)-a0902 [intro]; Reid et al RMP(09) [and applications]; Lesov a1101 [intro, and locality].
@ General references: Einstein et al PR(35); Bohr PR(35); Bohm & Aharonov PR(57), NC(60); McGrath IJTP(78); Kronz PhSc(88)dec; Omnès PLA(89); Deltete & Guy PhSc(91)sep; Yurke & Stoler PRL(92) [independent particle sources]; Szabó qp/98, qp/00; Khrennikov & Volovich qp/02 [EPR vs Bohm-Bell]; Khrennikov FPL(04) [and classical contextual probabilities]; Gyftopoulos & von Spakovsky qp/04 [current understanding]; Whitaker FP(04) [reassessment]; Norsen AIP(06)-qp/04, FPL(06) [and Bell locality]; Tresser qp/05; Conte a0711-proc; Lando & Bringuier EJP(08) [classical roots]; Nikolić EJP(12)-a1203 [1930 Einstein-Bohr precursor]; Roussel a1403 [and the Bell inequalities].
@ Critiques of argument: Brassard & Méthot IJQI(06)qp/07; Field qp/07/PRA, a0804 [comment Fischer a0805]; Khrennikov a0804; Norton AJP-a1008; Ozawa & Kitajima FP(12)-a1107 [Bohr's reply in algebraic quantum field theory]; Das Arulsamy Pra(14)-a1205; Wiseman AP(13)-a1208 [formalization, EPR's and Bohr's definition of disturbance].
@ Proposed resolutions: Pitowsky PRL(82); Dewdney et al JPA(87) [causal account]; Szabó qp/98 [Reichenbachian concept of common cause]; Tommasini O&S(03)qp/02 [using photon uncertainty]; Kracklauer SPIE(09)-a0903 [proposed local, real model]; San Pedro EJPS(12)-a0905 [common-cause model]; Oaknin a1306 [pseudo-classical paths]; Belinsky & Shulman a1509 [some superluminal interaction]; Revzen a1708 [hidden-variable interpretation].
@ Loopholes: Mermin in(86); Feldmann FPL(95)qp/99.

EPR-Type Experiments > s.a. foundations; history; relativistic .
* Idea: Have a source emitting two photons together in opposite directions (atomic cascade), with polarizations measured "far" from the source along two directions, each chosen at random among three possible directions at 120o from each other; Quantum mechanics and local hidden variables theories give different and incompatible predictions for the correlations between the
* Results: Experiments of A Aspect et al at Orsay have confirmed the quantitative predictions of quantum mechanics regarding Bell's inequalities, thus ruling out theories with local hidden variables.
& Experimental groups, 1987: J F Clauser & S Freedman (Berkeley); R Holt & F M Pipkin (Harvard); E S Fry & R C Thompson (Texas A&M); A Aspect & collaborators (Orsay); 1999: N Gisin et al (Genève).
@ Reviews: Mattuck EJP(82); Zajonc in(89); Lamoreaux IJMPA(92); Percival PLA(01)qp/00, PLA(01).
@ Bell's inequalities: Aspect et al PRL(81), PRL(82), PRL(92); Marshall PLA(84) [experiments needed]; Greenberger & Zeilinger PW(95)sep; Tittel et al EPL(97)qp [35 m], PRA(98)qp/97 [10 km], PRL(98); Weihs et al PRL(98)qp [with enforced locality]; Sica OC(99)qp/01, OC(99)qp/01; Kracklauer2 qp/00; Adenier & Khrennikov qp/00-conf [anomalies in photon data]; Hofer FoP(12)-a1109 [non-locality mechanism]; Cabello & Sciarrino PRX(12) [loophole-free tests are feasible with photon precertification]; Hensen et al a1508 + news pw(15)sep ['loophole-free' experiment with entangled electrons separated by 1.3 km]; news sn(16)dec [with photons from starlight]; Hardy a1705 [proposal to use humans to switch settings in a Bell experiment].
@ Bell-Kochen-Specker: Cabello & García-Alcaine PRL(98)qp/97; de la Torre FP(07)qp/06 [no x and p values].
@ Single particle: Hessmo et al PRL(04) [photon].
@ Experiments: Zhao et al FP(08) [even-based computer simulation]; Ichikawa et al PLA(08) [using meson decay]; Bar-Gill et al PRL(11)-a1009 [ultracold bosonic gases]; Gallicchio et al PRL(14)-a1310 [using cosmic photons]; Del Santo a1701 [Popper's thought experiment]; Handsteiner et al PRL(17) [Bell inequality test using real-time observations of Milky Way stars]; > s.a. experiments in quantum mechanics.
@ And locality: Cohen PRA(97); Accardi & Regoli qp/00-conf; Jacobs & Wiseman AJP(05)oct-qp [as a story]; Smerlak & Rovelli FP(07)qp/06 [relational view of quantum mechanics]; Tresser qp/06 [no locality assumption]; Griffiths AJP(11)sep-a1007; > s.a. locality.

Related Topics > s.a. bell's inequalities; entangled systems.
@ General references: Rarity & Tapster PRL(90); Sinha & Sorkin FPL(91) [sum-over-histories account]; Hagley et al PRL(97) [with atoms]; Thompson qp/97/PRL [critique]; Svozil NJP(06)qp/02 [simultaneous measurements]; Bertlmann et al PLA(04)qp [meson pairs]; Takei et al PRA(06) [time-gated]; Ding et al HEPNP-hp/07 [in high-energy physics]; Matzkin qp/07, replaced by a0808 [model based on random local interaction]; Floyd a1001 [in terms of quantum trajectories, entanglement and non-locality].
@ Similar inequalities and types of particles: Peres AJP(00)nov-qp/99 [momenta]; Gisin & Go AJP(01)mar-qp/00 [with photons and kaons]; González-Robles MPLA(03) [any spin]; Bramon et al JMO(05)qp/04 [re B mesons]; Caban PRA(07) [photons, quantum field theory approach]; Walborn et al a0907 [based on an entropic uncertainty relation].
@ And gravity, general relativity: von Borzeszkowski & Mensky PLA(00); Peres FdP(04)qp-proc, FP(05) [and information]; Bakke et al a0902 [curved spacetime]; Krizek a1704 [EPR = ER?].
@ And hidden variables: Michler et al PRL(00) [non-contextual]; Hofer qp/01/PRL [simulations, with local hidden variables].


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