The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Experiment and Paradox  

In General > s.a. entanglement; quantum correlations; quantum information; wigner functions.
* Idea: An argument that could be called Einstein's reality-locality-completeness theorem, since it proves that one of these three properties must be false for quantum mechanics.
* Remark: It is a paradox only if we assume that (e.g., in the decay π0e+e) Alice's measurement of the spin of one particle makes the spin of the other one an element of reality.
@ Reviews, books: Mermin PT(85)apr; Selleri ed-88; Roussel qp/03-in; Socolovsky qp/05; Gisin qp/07-fs; Szabó a0712-iep; Blaylock AJP(10)-a0902 [intro]; Reid et al RMP(09) [and applications]; Lesov a1101 [intro, and locality].
@ General references: Einstein et al PR(35); Bohr PR(35); Bohm & Aharonov PR(57), NC(60); McGrath IJTP(78); Kronz PhSc(88)dec; Omnès PLA(89); Deltete & Guy PhSc(91)sep; Yurke & Stoler PRL(92) [independent particle sources]; Szabó qp/98, qp/00; Khrennikov & Volovich qp/02 [EPR vs Bohm-Bell]; Khrennikov FPL(04) [and classical contextual probabilities]; Gyftopoulos & von Spakovsky qp/04 [current understanding]; Whitaker FP(04) [reassessment]; Norsen AIP(06)-qp/04, FPL(06) [and Bell locality]; Tresser qp/05; Conte a0711-proc; Lando & Bringuier EJP(08) [classical roots]; Nikolić EJP(12)-a1203 [1930 Einstein-Bohr precursor]; Roussel a1403 [and the Bell inequalities]; Kochen a1710 [and Born's rule, Lorentz invariance].
@ Critiques of argument: Brassard & Méthot IJQI(06)qp/07; Field qp/07/PRA, a0804 [comment Fischer a0805]; Khrennikov a0804; Norton AJP-a1008; Ozawa & Kitajima FP(12)-a1107 [Bohr's reply in algebraic quantum field theory]; Das Arulsamy Pra(14)-a1205; Wiseman AP(13)-a1208 [formalization, EPR's and Bohr's definition of disturbance]; Stacey a1809 [incorrect explanations].
@ Superluminal communication: Belinsky & Shulman a1509 [proposal]; Cocciaro et al a1802 [improved lower bound].
@ Proposed resolutions: Pitowsky PRL(82); Dewdney et al JPA(87) [causal account]; Szabó qp/98 [Reichenbachian concept of common cause]; Tommasini O&S(03)qp/02 [using photon uncertainty]; Kracklauer SPIE(09)-a0903 [proposed local, real model]; San Pedro EJPS(12)-a0905 [common-cause model]; Oaknin a1306 [pseudo-classical paths]; Revzen a1708 [hidden-variable interpretation]; Sassoli de Bianchi a1805 [Aerts' solution].
@ Loopholes: Mermin in(86); Feldmann FPL(95)qp/99.

EPR-Type Experiments > s.a. foundations; history; relativistic quantum mechanics.
* Idea: Have a source emitting two photons together in opposite directions (atomic cascade), with polarizations measured "far" from the source along two directions, each chosen at random among three possible directions at 120° from each other; Quantum mechanics and local hidden variables theories give different and incompatible predictions for the correlations between the measured values.
* Results: Experiments by A Aspect et al at Orsay have confirmed the quantitative predictions of quantum mechanics regarding Bell's inequalities, thus ruling out theories with local hidden variables.
& Experimental groups, 1987: J F Clauser & S Freedman (Berkeley); R Holt & F M Pipkin (Harvard); E S Fry & R C Thompson (Texas A&M); A Aspect & collaborators (Orsay); 1999: N Gisin et al (Genève).
@ Reviews: Mattuck EJP(82); Zajonc in(89); Lamoreaux IJMPA(92); Percival PLA(01)qp/00, PLA(01).
@ Bell's inequalities: Aspect et al PRL(81), PRL(82), PRL(92); Marshall PLA(84) [experiments needed]; Greenberger & Zeilinger PW(95)sep; Tittel et al EPL(97)qp [35 m], PRA(98)qp/97 [10 km], PRL(98); Weihs et al PRL(98)qp [with enforced locality]; Sica OC(99)qp/01, OC(99)qp/01; Kracklauer2 qp/00; Adenier & Khrennikov qp/00-conf [anomalies in photon data]; Hofer FoP(12)-a1109 [non-locality mechanism]; Cabello & Sciarrino PRX(12) [loophole-free tests are feasible with photon precertification]; Hensen et al Nat(15)oct-a1508 + news pw(15)sep ['loophole-free' experiment with entangled electrons separated by 1.3 km]; news sn(16)dec [with photons from starlight]; Hardy a1705 [proposal to use humans to switch settings in a Bell experiment]; Khrennikov & Basieva a1801 [testing the original Bell inequality as opposed to the CHSH inequality]; Big Bell Test collaboration Nat-a1805 [100,000 human participants].
@ Bell-Kochen-Specker: Cabello & García-Alcaine PRL(98)qp/97; de la Torre FP(07)qp/06 [no x and p values].
@ Single particle: Hessmo et al PRL(04) [photon].
@ Experiments: Zhao et al FP(08) [even-based computer simulation]; Ichikawa et al PLA(08) [using meson decay]; Bar-Gill et al PRL(11)-a1009 [ultracold bosonic gases]; Gallicchio et al PRL(14)-a1310 [using cosmic photons]; Del Santo SHPMP(17)-a1701 [Popper's thought experiment]; Handsteiner et al PRL(17) [Bell inequality test using real-time observations of Milky Way stars]; Rauch et al PRL-a1808 [cosmic test]; > s.a. experiments in quantum mechanics.
@ And locality: Cohen PRA(97); Accardi & Regoli qp/00-conf; Jacobs & Wiseman AJP(05)oct-qp [as a story]; Smerlak & Rovelli FP(07)qp/06 [relational view of quantum mechanics]; Tresser qp/06 [no locality assumption]; Griffiths AJP(11)sep-a1007; > s.a. locality.

Related Topics > s.a. bell's inequalities; entangled systems.
@ General references: Rarity & Tapster PRL(90); Sinha & Sorkin FPL(91) [sum-over-histories account]; Hagley et al PRL(97) [with atoms]; Thompson qp/97/PRL [critique]; Svozil NJP(06)qp/02 [simultaneous measurements]; Bertlmann et al PLA(04)qp [meson pairs]; Takei et al PRA(06) [time-gated]; Ding et al HEPNP-hp/07 [in high-energy physics]; Matzkin qp/07, replaced by a0808 [model based on random local interaction]; Floyd a1001 [in terms of quantum trajectories, entanglement and non-locality].
@ Similar inequalities and types of particles: Peres AJP(00)nov-qp/99 [momenta]; Gisin & Go AJP(01)mar-qp/00 [with photons and kaons]; González-Robles MPLA(03) [any spin]; Bramon et al JMO(05)qp/04 [re B mesons]; Caban PRA(07) [photons, quantum field theory approach]; Walborn et al a0907 [based on an entropic uncertainty relation].
@ And gravity, general relativity: von Borzeszkowski & Mensky PLA(00); Peres FdP(04)qp-proc, FP(05) [and information]; Bakke et al a0902 [curved spacetime]; Krizek a1704 [EPR = ER?].
@ And hidden variables: Michler et al PRL(00) [non-contextual]; Hofer qp/01/PRL [simulations, with local hidden variables].


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