Dark Energy – Models  

In General > s.a. dark energy [holographic]; equation of state; FLRW models; graviton; perfect fluids; theory of cosmological acceleration.
* Possibilities: Cosmological constant (w ≡ –1), quintessence, phantom energy (which may lead to big rip), ..., dynamical vacuum energy interacting with ordinary baryonic matter and dark matter.
* Chaplygin gas: 2004, cmb peaks indicate 0 < r ≤ 1, but supernovae indicate r > 1; > s.a. inflationary scenarios.
@ Reviews: Yoo & Watanabe IJMPD(12).
@ Cosmological constant: Lineweaver ap/98-proc [and cmb]; Célérier A&A(00)ap/99 [Λ > 0 or inhomogeneous]; Kratochvil et al JCAP(04)ap/03 [tests]; Liddle et al PRD(06)ap [vs evolving dark energy]; Serra et al PRD(09)-a0908, Serra a1005-proc [no evidence for dynamics]; March et al MNRAS(11)-a1005 [no statistical motivation for doubt]; Bauer JPCS(10)-a1010 [plus dynamical dark energy].
@ Evidence for dynamical dark energy: Zhao et al PRL(12)-a1207 [mildly favored]; Ding et al ApJL(15)-a1503; Solà et al ApJ(17)-a1602, a1606 [significantly favored], a1703 [4σ confidence level].
@ Chaplygin gas: Kamenshchik et al PLB(01) [proposal]; Gorini et al PRD(03)ap/02, ap/04-MGX; Colistete et al gq/02-proc; Amendola et al JCAP(03)ap; Bean & Doré PRD(03)ap; Bilić et al ap/03-conf; Bertolami ap/04-talk [bounds]; Sen & Scherrer PRD(05)ap [generalized]; Bilić et al JPA(07)gq/06-conf [and structure formation, with string theory effects].
@ Scalar field: Maor & Brustein PRD(03)hp/02; Rubano et al PRD(03)ap [oscillating]; Beck PRD(04) [chaotic]; Lee ChPL(04)ap; Enqvist et al PRL(07) [seesaw mechanism]; Nozari & Sadatian MPLA(09)-a0905 [non-minimal]; Fabris & Jardim EPL(10)-a0910; Ziaeepour PRD(10)-a1003 [condensate]; Lemets & Yerokhin a1012 [and dark matter]; Iwazaki a1206; Frasca a1409 [massless quartic scalar field with massive dispersion relation]; Perenon et al a1506 [non-minimally coupled]; Chamseddine & Mukhanov JCAP(16)-a1601 [inhomogeneous, non-dynamical fields]; > s.a. inhomogeneities and acceleration [effective scalar field].
@ Vector field: Armendáriz-Picón JCAP(04)ap; Böhmer & Harko EPJC(07)gq [massive]; Jiménez & Maroto AIP(09)-a0812; Jiménez et al PRD(09).
@ (Large) extra dimensions: Burgess AIP(05)ht/04 [supersymmetric]; Kainulainen & Sunhede PRD(06)ap/04; Li et al ap/05; Greene et al PLB(11)-a1001; Novosyadlyj et al a1502-book.
@ Born-Infeld: Elizalde et al PLB(03) [BI condensate]; Garousi et al PRD(05) [Dirac-BI, bounds from varying α].
@ Electromagnetic fields: Beck & Mackey IJMPD(08)ap/07; Beltrán Jiménez & Maroto JCAP(09)-a0811, IJMPD(09)-a0905-GRF; Arık & Katırcı a1108-wd.
@ Neutrino condensate: de Vega & Sánchez ap/07; Urban & Zhitnitsky NPB(10)-a0909 [QCD]; Bhatt PLB(10).
@ Yang-Mills condensate: Zhao & Zhang PLB(06); Klinkhamer PRD(10) [gluon condensate]; Donà et al PRD(16)-a1509 [non-perturbative]; Addazi et al a1602 [and the Peccei-Quinn mechanism].
@ Other known fields: Hsu PLB(03)ap [non-linear field oscillations]; Contopoulos & Basilakos A&A(07)-a0705 [cosmological magnetic fields]; Blasone et al a0809-ch, Capolupo et al PLB(09)-a0809 [particle mixing condensate]; Alexander et al PRD(10) [BCS fermion condensate]; Guendelman & Kaganovich PRD(13)-a1208 [other neutrino mechanism]; Biermann & Harms a1305 [gravitational waves]; Krauss & Dent PRL(13) [Higgs seesaw mechanism]; Ziaeepour JPCS(15)-a1502 [quantum coherent state].
@ Effective field theory: Maziashvili PLB(08); Gubitosi et al JCAP(13)-a1210; Frusciante et al JCAP(14)-a1310 [dynamical analysis]; Linder et al JCAP(16)-a1512.
@ Multiple-field models: Vardanyan & Amendola PRD(15)-a1502 [test]; Berezhiani et al PRD(15)-a1505 [two-component dark energy].
@ Other models: Alam et al JCAP(03) [decaying]; Caldwell et al PRL(03)ap [phantom energy, big rip]; Gasperini ht/03 [dilaton]; Hall et al PRL(05)ap [evolving]; Feng ap/06-proc [quintom, rev]; Brax & Martin PRD(07)ht/06 [MSSM]; Li et al PRD(07)ap/06 [reconstruction of potential]; Kaloper PLB(07)-a0706; Stichel & Zakrzewski PRD(09)-a0904 [exotic massless particles]; Dutta et al IJMPD(10)-a1005-GRF; Sloth IJMPD(10)-a1005-GRF [ultraviolet field-theory cutoff and equation of state]; Basilakos et al PRD(11) [Noether-symmetry approach]; Mocioiu & Roiban PRD(11) [renormalization group flow]; Marochnik et al FP(08)-a0709 [virtual gravitons]; Marochnik G&C(13) [instantons]; Pearson AdP(14)-a1403 [material models]; Jennen & Pereira PDU(16)-a1506 [teleparallel gravity, kinematic effect]; Czachor a1604 [as a manifestation of non-trivial arithmetic]; > s.a. dark energy and dark matter; Phantom Fields; supersymmetry; vacuum [fluctuations].

Modified Gravity and Quantum-Gravity Motivated Models > s.a. conformal invariance.
@ f(R) gravity: Tsujikawa PRD(08)-a0709; Deruelle et al PRD(08)-a0803 ["detuning"]; Kuhfittig JAMP(17)-a1705; > s.a. higher-order gravity.
@ Scalar-tensor theories: Wang ht/06/PRL; Gannouji et al ap/07-MG11; Alimohammadi & Behnamian PRD(09)-a0909; Das & Al Mamon ASS(14)-a1402.
@ Other modified gravity: Pirogov PAN(08)-a0704 [scalar graviton, and dark matter]; Cooney et al PRD(09)-a0811 [non-dynamical gravitational degrees of freedom]; Wiltshire EAS(09)-a0912, AIP(10)-a0912 [gravitational energy]; Bamba et al JCAP(11)-a1011 [f(T) gravity]; Villata ASS(12)-a1201 [repulsive gravity and antimatter]; Harko & Lobo IJMPD(12)-a1205-GRF [infrared modification of general relativity]; Ma & Wang DCDS(14)-a1206; Piazza et al JCAP(14) [exploring the space of theories]; Abe et al IJMPA(17)-a1603 [gravitational corrections of vacuum energy]; Bashkirov a1704 [variation of Newton's constant]; > s.a. bimetric gravity; hořava gravity.
@ From information theory: Gough et al PE(06)ap [information energy]; Lee et al a0709-proc.
@ From lqc: Bojowald GRG(08)-a0705; Nelson & Sakellariadou PLB(08)-a0709 [corrections to Wheeler-DeWitt equation]; Xiao & Zhu IJMPA(10).
@ From string theory: Frampton PLB(03); Krause a0801.
@ Other trans-Planckian: Bastero-Gil & Mersini PRD(03); Lemoine et al PRD(03); Brout gq/05 [fluctuations]; Asselmeyer-Maluga & Rosé APPB(08)-a0710-proc [differential structure]; Khosravi & Sepangi PLA(08)-a0802 [DSR and fundamental length]; Ng AIP(09)-a0808 [spacetime foam]; Maziashvili EPL(10)-a0901 [spacetime microstructure]; Fomitchev a1009; Shalyt-Margolin IJMPD(12)-a1102 [deformed gravity and deviation from the thermodynamic identity]; Savelova G&C(13) [gas of wormholes]; Sengupta CQG(15)-a1501 [theory with torsional instantons]; Graef & Brandenberger JCAP(15)-a1505; > s.a. locality in quantum field theory [quantum gravity]; spacetime foam.
@ Related models: Balakin et al NJP(03) [curvature self-interaction]; Dimopoulos & Thomas PLB(03)ht [continuum vs discretum]; Koorambas IJTP(12) [geometric unification of gravity and dark energy]; Josset et al PRL(17)-a1604 [from dynamical quantum reduction].
> Other gravity theories: see Gauss-Bonnet Gravity; higher-dimensional gravity; kaluza-klein theory; modified general relativity; torsion in physics.
> Other new physics: see emergent gravity [entropic]; quaternions; quintessence; tachyons.


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