In General > s.a. galaxy distribution [including clusters] and evolution; gravitating matter [modeling]; types of galaxies.
* 2014: CIBER results indicate that galaxies may not have a set boundary, but scattered stars instead stretch out to great distances.
@ Books: Kaufmann 79 [I]; Hubble '82'; Hodge 86 [I]; Binney & Merrifield 98 [II/III]; Padmanabhan 02 [and cosmology]; Sparke & Gallagher 07 [II]; Binney & Tremaine 08; Gribbin 08 [I, history]; Shapley + Trimble AS(11)jan [rev].
@ Other references: Capozziello et al gq/99, MPLA(00)gq/99 [and Planck's constant?]; Russell ASS(05), ASS(05)ap [intrinsic redshifts?]; Willman & Strader AJ(12)-a1203 [definition of galaxy].
> Online resources: Internet Encyclopedia of Science pages.

Motion, Rotation and Other Features > s.a. galaxy distribution [rotation alignment]; interstellar medium; magnetism.
* Motion, in general: For neighboring galaxies the relative motion is mostly dictated by their gravitational attraction, and the effects of dark matter and dark energy; Taking into account the latter, one finds that global expansion starts setting in about 5 Mly from us, as observed.
Rotation: A first relationship between galaxy brightness and rotation rate was the Tully-Fischer relation (1977); Recent studies (2016) have shown that the rotation rate of spiral galaxies is specified by the visible matter they contain, even if they are mostly composed of dark matter, which implies that the distribution of conventional matter in the disk specifies the density profile of the surrounding dark matter halo.
@ General references: McGaugh Gal(14)-a1412 [rotation].
@ Tully-Fischer relation: Tully & Fisher A&A(77); Giovanelli ap/96-proc; Kannappan et al AJ(02)ap [scatter]; Russell ApJ(04)ap [type dependence].
@ Individual galaxies: Dressler SA(87)sep [streaming]; Giovanelli ap/96-proc [deviations from Hubble flow]; Hudson PASP-ap/99; Courteau & Dekel ASP-ap/01; Godlowski et al GRG(05)ap [angular momenta, and clusters].
@ Rotation curves: Sofue & Rubin ARAA(01)ap/00; Negi G&C(03)ap/04 [and general relativity]; Vatistas a1012 [flattening from turbulence?]; Cooney et al a1202/PRD [special and general relativistic effects]; Darabi MNRAS(13)-a1301 [and cosmic expansion]; Pavlovich et al a1406 [Newtonian explanation based on distribution of baryonic matter]; Magalhaes & Cooperstock a1508 [and general relativity]; Christodoulou & Kazanas JModP(16)-a1510 [Newtonian explanation, no need for dark matter or modified gravity]; McGaugh et al PRL(16) [luminous and dark matter]; Li et al ChPC(17)-a1703 [comparing models]; > s.a. dark matter; non-commutative gravity; non-extensive statistics; phenomenology of higher-order gravity; rotation.
@ Velocity fields: Feldman ap/03-proc [and cosmology]; Haugboelle et al ApJ(07)ap/06, Hannestad et al JCAP(08) [from type Ia SNs]; Ayaita et al a0908 [anomalously large bulk flows]; Kashlinsky et al ApJ(10) + news pw(10)mar [bulk, dark flow]; Song et al JCAP(11)-a1006 [coherent motions]; Ma et al PRD(11); Turnbull MNRAS(12)-a1111 [nearby cosmic flow]; Hand et al PRL(12) + Holder Phy(12), Lavaux et al MNRAS(13)-a1207 [bulk flow of nearby galaxies from the cmb, kinematic SZ effect]; Doumler et al MNRAS(13)-a1212 ff [and cosmological initial conditions]; Meierovich PRD(13)-a1303 [theory]; Francis & Anderson CMDA(14)-a1311 [LSR, local standard of rest]; Hahn et al MNRAS(15)-a1404 [properties, from simulations]; Ma & Scott A&G(14)-a1406 [peculiar velocity measurements]; Pomarede et al ApJ-a1706 [3D visualization]; > s.a. tests of gravity theories.
@ Chemical abundances: Köppen et al MNRAS(07)ap/06 [mass-metallicity relation]; Bresolin et al ApJ(09)-a0905 [NGC 300].
@ Other topics: Smolin ap/96 [model]; Fukugita & Peebles ApJ(06)ap/05 [massive coronae]; Bray a1004 [dark matter and galaxy shape]; Jelinek & Hensler CPC(11)-a1103 [high-velocity clouds and halos]; Masaki et al ApJ(12)-a1105 [matter distribution]; Bindoni et al NA(12)-a1111 [dark matter and mass-size relationship].

Specific Galaxies > s.a. black-hole phenomenology; milky way galaxy; types of galaxies [dwarf galaxies, satellites, groups].
* M31: In Andromeda, at a distance of about 2 Mly; Similar to the Milky Way but larger.
* M87: In Virgo, d ~ 50 Mly, with jets from 3 × 109 MSun black hole.
@ M31: McConnachie & Irwin MNRAS(06)ap/05 [satellites]; Courteau et al ApJ(11)-a1106 [parameters]; Schultz 12 [role in the rise of modern astronomy]; Sohn et al ApJ(12)-a1205, ApJ(12)-a1205, ApJ(12)-a1205 [velocity, collision with Milky Way]; Lehner et al ApJ(15)-a1404 [massive circumgalactic medium]; Hayashi & Chiba ApJ(14)-a1405 [prolate dark-matter halo]; Gould & Rix JKAS-a1502 [star radial migration and mixing]; Collins et al IAU(16)-a1605 [dwarf galaxies and stellar streams].
@ Clusters: van den Bergh ApJL(99)ap [Antlia-Sextans]; Woudt et al ap/99-conf [great attractor].
@ Related topics: Thommes ap/98-conf [large redshift]; Cox & Loeb MNRAS(08)-a0705 [collision of M31 and Milky Way]; Karachentsev et al AJ(13)-a1303 [nearby galaxy catalog]; news ns(17)mar [NGC 4258 has two extra tentacles].

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