Atomic Physics |

**In General** > s.a. {#democritus}; condensed-matter physics; elements;
history of physics [including the Bohr model].

* __Evidence__: Analysis
of chemical reactions; Brownian motion (A Einstein, typical size 10^{–10} m).

@ __Texts__: Cagnac & Pebay-Peyroula 75 [IIb]; Lim 00 [problems, and
nuclear]; Dahl 01 [III];
Budker et al 04
[problems, r PT(05)mar];
Yang & Hamilton 10
+ problems 10;
Inguscio & Fallani 13 [and ultracold matter].

@ __Manipulation of atoms__: Eigler & Schweizer Nat(90)apr;
Folman et al PRL(00)qp/99;
> s.a. electronic technology [atomtronics].

@ __Imaging__: Tsong PT(06)mar [history];
Zewail et al PNAS(06)
+ pw(06)dec [electron microscope movies];
news R&D(12)jul [shadow of a single atom];
> s.a. microscopes.

@ __Exotic atoms__: news pw(04)oct [pionium];
DEAR Collaboration PRL(05)
+ pw(05)jun
[kaonic H]; DIRAC Collaboration PRL(16) [mesonic aroms, \(\pi^\pm K^\mp\)]; > s.a. elements [positronium].

@ __Interactions__: Fermi (23)ht/02 [with
charged particles]; Cohen-Tannoudji 04 [with electromagnetic fields]; > s.a.
below [with light].

@ __Related topics__: Dirac IJTP(84)
[future]; Alba et al CJP(10)-a0806 [relativistic];
Cohen-Tannoudji & Guéry-Odelin 11 [advances, r PT(11)mar]; Amusia et al 12 [data handbook];
Grujić & Simonović PT(12)may,
Rashkovskiy IJP(17)-a1602 [classical atomic models]; > s.a. structure of matter [including plasma].

> __Online resources__:
Internet Encyclopedia of Science pages.

**Stark Effect**

* __Consequences__: Makes bound states acquire a finite lifetime.

@ __References__: Land & Howitz FP(01)qp [covariant
form]; Bini et al PRD(04)gq [gravitational,
c-metric]; Duncan & Janssen a1404, a1404-proc [history, in the old and the new quantum theory].

**Zeeman Effect**

* __Idea__: The splitting
of atomic spectral lines by an external magnetic field **B**, due to the interaction of **B** with
the atomic magnetic moment; If **B** = *B* **k**, then
*U* = –*μ* · **B** = *g* *m*_{J}
(*e*\(\hbar\)*B*/2*m*_{e}).

* __Applications__: Since
it depends on the quantum number *m*_{J} of
the energy levels, it removes a degeneracy and is useful for the identification
of quantum numbers; Also used in astronomy to detect magnetic fields in stars.

* __Consequences__: It makes bound states acquire a finite lifetime.

* __Normal vs anomalous__:
The "normal" one is a simpler line splitting
at high magnetic fields; The transition to the more complicated, "anomalous" pattern
(Paschen-Back effect) occurs at fields below 10 T or so.

@ __References__: Zeeman Nat(1897); Mukhopadhyay & Ganguly a1802 [gravitational Zeeman effect].

**Special Topics** > s.a. Dicke
Model; Efimov Effect; interactions;
gas; parity; Saha
Equation; X-Rays.

* __Prout's law__: Atomic weights are integer multiples of that of H (not really true).

* __Highest- Z atoms__:
1999, Element 116 (and 118, later retracted) seen at LBL; 2006, Discovery of
118 announced again by JINR-Livermore Lab collaboration; 2010, Element 117 seen by a collaboration of Russian and
US physicists; > s.a. elements.

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**And Fundamental Physics** > s.a. equivalence principle;
interferometry; lorentz-group phenomenology.

* __Jaynes-Cummings-Paul
model__: A model describing a two-level atom interacting with a single
mode of an electromagnetic cavity reservoir.

* __Other effects__: Atomic systems
have shown large parity violation effects (> see parity)
and encourage tabletop searches for new physics.

@ __Atoms and light__:
Pike & Sarkar 96;
Loudon 00;
Clark & Parkins JOB(03)qp/02 [2-level atoms + squeezed light];
Griesemer mp/04-proc,
Amour et al mp/05 [non-relativistic matter + QED];
Guo et al PRA(06)qp/05 [and Freeman resonances];
Hinds & Barnett PRL(09) [momentum exchange];
Göklü & Lämmerzahl GRG(11)-a0908-conf [spacetime fluctuations and noise];
Straten & Metcalf 16 [text];
Garziano et al PRL(16) [two atoms excited by a single photon];
> s.a. light [scattering]; types of quantum field theories.

@ __Jaynes-Cummings-Paul model__: Shore & Knight JMO(93); Ahmadi
et al SIr(11)-a1008 [strong-coupling regime];
Bina EPJST(12)-a1111 [tutorial].

@ __Electroweak theory__: Bennett & Wieman PRL(99)
+ pn(99)mar
[*Z*-mediated, P-violating transitions].

@ __Standard model__: Ginges & Flambaum PRP(04) [and beyond].

@ __Hadronic atoms__: Gotta IJMPA(05) [pionic H];
Schweizer IJMPA(05) [spectrum, decays].

> __Related topics__: see Simulations
[cold atoms and quantum field theory effects]; Unparticles [effect on ground-state energy];
> s.a. vacuum.

"If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed,

and only one sentence passed on to the next generations of creatures,

what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words?

I believe it is the atomic hypothesis … that all things are made of atoms —

little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other

when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed

into one another." R. Feynman.

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