Atomic Physics |

**In General**
> s.a. {#democritus}; condensed-matter physics; elements;
history of physics [including the Bohr model].

* __Evidence__: Analysis of chemical reactions;
Brownian motion (A Einstein, typical size 10^{−10} m).

@ __Texts__: Cagnac & Pebay-Peyroula 75 [IIb];
Lim 00 [problems, and nuclear];
Dahl 01 [III];
Budker et al 04
[problems, r PT(05)mar];
Yang & Hamilton 10
+ problems 10;
Inguscio & Fallani 13 [and ultracold matter];
Fox 18 [II].

@ __Manipulation of atoms__: Eigler & Schweizer Nat(90)apr;
Folman et al PRL(00)qp/99;
news Phy(19)may;
> s.a. electronic technology [atomtronics].

@ __Imaging__: Tsong PT(06)mar [history];
Zewail et al PNAS(06)
+ pw(06)dec [electron microscope movies];
news R&D(12)jul [shadow of a single atom];
> s.a. microscopes.

@ __Exotic atoms__: news pw(04)oct [pionium];
DEAR Collaboration PRL(05)
+ pw(05)jun [kaonic H];
DIRAC Collaboration PRL(16) [mesonic aroms, \(\pi^\pm K^\mp\)];
> s.a. elements [positronium].

@ __Interactions__:
Fermi (23)ht/02 [with charged particles];
Cohen-Tannoudji 04 [with electromagnetic fields];
> s.a. below [with light].

@ __Related topics__: Dirac IJTP(84) [future];
Alba et al CJP(10)-a0806 [relativistic];
Cohen-Tannoudji & Guéry-Odelin 11
[advances, r PT(11)mar];
Amusia et al 12 [data handbook];
Grujić & Simonović PT(12)may,
Rashkovskiy IJP(17)-a1602 [classical atomic models];
> s.a. structure of matter [including plasma].

> __Online resources__: Internet Encyclopedia of Science
pages.

**Quantum Theory and Phenomenology**
> s.a. interactions; gas.

* __Prout's law__: Atomic
weights are integer multiples of that of H (not really true).

* __Highest- Z atoms__: 1999,
Element 116 (and 118, later retracted) seen at LBL; 2006, Discovery of 118 announced
again by JINR-Livermore Lab collaboration; 2010, Element 117 seen by a collaboration
of Russian and US physicists; > s.a. elements.

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**Stark Effect**

* __Consequences__:
It makes bound states acquire a finite lifetime.

@ __References__: Land & Howitz FP(01)qp [covariant form];
Bini et al PRD(04)gq [gravitational, c-metric];
Duncan & Janssen a1404,
a1404-proc
[history, in the old and the new quantum theory].

**Zeeman Effect**

* __Idea__: The splitting
of atomic spectral lines by an external magnetic field **B**,
due to the interaction of **B** with the atomic magnetic moment;
If **B** = *B* **k**, then *U* =
−*μ* · **B**
= *g* *m*_{J}
(*e*\(\hbar\)*B*/2*m*_{e}).

* __Applications__: Since it depends
on the quantum number *m*_{J} of
the energy levels, it removes a degeneracy and is useful for the identification
of quantum numbers; Also used in astronomy to detect magnetic fields in stars.

* __Consequences__: It makes bound states
acquire a finite lifetime.

* __Normal vs anomalous__:
The "normal" one is a simpler line splitting at high magnetic fields;
The transition to the more complicated, "anomalous" pattern (Paschen-Back
effect) occurs at fields below 10 T or so.

@ __References__: Zeeman Nat(1897);
Mukhopadhyay & Ganguly a1802 [gravitational Zeeman effect].

**And Fundamental Physics**
> s.a. equivalence principle; interferometry;
lorentz-group phenomenology.

* __Jaynes-Cummings-Paul model__:
A model describing a two-level atom interacting with a single mode of an
electromagnetic cavity reservoir.

* __Other effects__:
Atomic systems have shown large parity violation effects
(> see parity) and encourage
tabletop searches for new physics.

@ __Atoms and light__:
Pike & Sarkar 96;
Loudon 00;
Clark & Parkins JOB(03)qp/02 [2-level atoms + squeezed light];
Griesemer mp/04-proc,
Amour et al mp/05 [non-relativistic matter + QED];
Guo et al PRA(06)qp/05 [and Freeman resonances];
Hinds & Barnett PRL(09) [momentum exchange];
Göklü & Lämmerzahl GRG(11)-a0908-conf [spacetime fluctuations and noise];
can der Straten & Metcalf 16 [text];
Garziano et al PRL(16) [two atoms excited by a single photon];
> s.a. light [scattering];
types of quantum field theories.

@ __Jaynes-Cummings-Paul model__:
Shore & Knight JMO(93);
Ahmadi et al SIr(11)-a1008 [strong-coupling regime];
Bina EPJST(12)-a1111 [tutorial];
Muradyan & Muradyan a1905 [ambiguity in electromagnetic field quantization].

@ __Electroweak theory__:
Bennett & Wieman PRL(99)
+ pn(99)mar
[*Z*-mediated, P-violating transitions].

@ __Standard model__:
Ginges & Flambaum PRP(04) [and beyond].

@ __Hadronic atoms__: Gotta IJMPA(05) [pionic H];
Schweizer IJMPA(05) [spectrum, decays].

> __Related topics__: see Simulations
[cold atoms and quantum field theory effects]; Unparticles [effect on ground-state energy];
> s.a. vacuum.

"If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed,

and only one sentence passed on to the next generations of creatures,

what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words?

I believe it is the atomic hypothesis … that all things are made of atoms —

little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other

when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed

into one another." R. Feynman.

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send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 11 jul 2019