In General > s.a. technology.
* Spintronics: Short for spin electronics, the study of electron spin in materials, with the hope of developing an new microelectronic devices; Based on the belief that up and down spin states can be exploited to build smaller (potentially on atomic scale) binary devices that use less power than charge-current-based devices, which furthermore may also be in intermediate quantum states, which holds the potential for highly parallel quantum computation.
@ Texts: Fischer-Cripps 05 [electronics, II]; Horowitz & Hill 15 [electronics, III]; Ghosh 16 [nanomaterials, devices].
@ Spintronics: Das Sarma AS(01); Grundler pw(02)apr; Zutic et al RMP(04); Bland et al pw(08)jan; Awschalom & Samarth Phy(09) [without magnetism]; Awschalom video Phy(10); Bauer & Tserkovnyak Phy(11)may [using spin pumping to convert magnons into electron spin flips]; news pw(15)may, Kukreja et al PRL(15) + news R&D(15)sep [spin currents traveling across materials].
@ Spinonics: Baskaran & Jafari PRL(02) + pn(02)jul [no charge].
@ Atomtronics: news nat(14)feb [the emerging field]; Amico & Boshier a1511-JO [overview and roadmap].
@ Molecular, carbon based: Tans et al Nat(98)may; Heath & Ratner PT(03)may; > s.a. elements [C nanotubes].
@ Organic electronic devices: Sheats et al Sci(96)aug [electroluminescence].
@ Quantum phenomena: Chen et al IJTP(07) [in mesoscopic circuits]; > s.a. quantum technology.
@ Related topics: Valasek TPT(63) [piezoelectricity]; & Heath (UCLA), Williams & Kuekes (HP) [chemically grown nanocomputers]; Auciello et al PT(98)jul [ferroelectrics and data storage]; Leonhardt & Philbin NJP(06)cm [electrical engineering metamaterials and general relativity]; Kharzeev & Yee PRB(12)-a1207 [chiral electronic devices]; > s.a. special relativity [batteries].
Currents and Resistors > s.a. electricity [conductivity, thermoelectric effect and devices].
* Memristor: A device that "remembers" the last current it experienced and varies its resistance accordingly.
@ Resistors: Romano & Price AJP(96)sep [conical]; Wu JPA(04)mp [2-point resistance and network Laplacian]; news wired(11)dec [onset of resistance].
@ Negative resistance: Lesurf NS(90)mar31, 56-60; Zudov et al PRL(06) + pn(06)jun; + Kaya & Eberl PRL(07) + pw(07)may [in 2D electron gases].
@ Memristors: news pw(08)apr, news ns(11)mar; Vongehr ASL(12)-a1205.
@ Related topics: Wagner & Sols PRL(99) [current from electrons deep beneath the Fermi surface]; news pw(06)jun [bi-directional single-electron ammeter]; news pn(08)may [piezoresistance].
MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) etc > s.a. casimir
* Idea: Small (microns to mm) electrically-driven mechanical devices.
* Techniques: Surface micromachining (thin films are deposited on a silicon surface and some of the features are etched away to result in movable parts), bulk micromachining (features are carved out of a silicon surface).
* Examples: Sensors (p, a, gyros, imaging, flow), micromotors (inkjet printer jets, valves), mirrors, etc; 1999, Dick Tracy watches by 2005?
* Molecular robots: 1999, T R Kelly built a 78-atom motor [@ Kelly et al Nat(99)sep].
@ References: NS(96)jun29; Blencowe CP(05) [NEMS, nanoelectromechanical systems]; Schwab & Roukes PT(05)jul [quantum limits].
Superconducting and Magnetic Technology > s.a. superconductivity.
* SQUID: A Superconducting Quantum Interference Device for very sensitive measurements of magnetic flux which uses flux quantization and the Josephson Effect, built from 1 (dc SQUID, 1964) or 2 (rf SQUID, 1970) Josephson junctions, operating at a few Kelvins; SQUIDs can measure fields of femtotesla (10–15 T) and monitor the magnetic fields produced by brain activity.
@ SQUIDs: Clarke SA(94)aug.
@ Magnetic technology: Geim PT(98)sep [research magnets].
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