Interaction |

**In General** > s.a. causality [action
at a distance]; classical field
theory; force; particles; particle
physics; quantum field theory.

* __Idea__: Generalizes the concept of force, and it is important to clarify
in what sense it generalizes it, if one wants to understand, for example, what
the ordinary concept of force and weak processes have in common.

* __Remark__: In non-relativistic
mechanics an interaction is represented by a local force, transmitted by action at a distance; In relativistic
mechanics, an interaction is
described by a classical or quantum field theory.

* __Hope__: Be able to derive
the existing interactions from a self-consistency argument using effective
theory ideas and phase transitions for steady states
far from equilibrium, which may exhibit universality; Something
like this has worked for ergodicity and equilibrium steady states.

**Static Forces**

* __Idea__: One can derive
the form of the potential for the static interaction between two field sources
by using properties of the field itself; In Minkowski space,

*V*(**x** – **x***'*)
~ ∫_{ \(\mathbb R\)} Δ_{F}(*t*–*t'*, **x** – **x***'*)
d*t* ,

or by some other procedure involving the Schwinger propagator.

* __Result__: If a force is transmitted by a quantum of mass *m*, the
static force is

*F* = *β* e^{–mr} / *r*^{2} ,

where *β* depends on the interacting particles and the way they couple; For a quantum of odd
spin, or *s* > 2, *β* = 0, so there can be no static force,
e.g., from neutrinos.

* __And spin__: For a force
transmitted by a boson of spin *s* between
two charges *Q*_{1} and *Q*_{2},
the coefficient that tells the strength and sign of the force is
(–1)^{s} *Q*_{2}*Q*_{2};
This comes from the static limit of an integral with currents and boson propagators,
which depend on *s*, in quantum field theory; Thus, the graviton
must have *s* = 0 (Newtonian theory) or *s* = 2 (general relativity).

@ __And spin__: Deser AJP(05)aug-gq/04.

**Specific Interactions** > s.a. force [exchange
interaction]; higher-spin fields; types
of field theories and quantum field theories.

@ __Overview__: Chamseddine ht/05-ln
[and representations of Poincaré Lie algebra, supersymmetry].

@ __Strong__: Vigier PLA(03) [in terms of electromagnetism];
> s.a. QCD.

> __Weak__: see electroweak
theory; standard model.

> __Gravitational__: see general relativity;
theories of gravity.

> __Electromagnetic__: see electromagnetism.

> __Unified__: see GUTS;
unified theories [including geometric aspects].

**Other References** > s.a. category theory.

@ __Consistent interactions__: Kaparulin et al JHEP(13)-a1210 [identifying all consistent interactions from involution of field equations];
Lyakhovich & Sharapov MPLA(14)-a1402;
Kaparulin et al JPA(16)-a1510 [compatible with global symmetries and conservation laws of a given free theory];
> s.a. types of gauge theories.

@ __Effective interactions__: Holstein AJP(99)may
[and Rayleigh scattering], AJP(04)mar [and H atom];
> s.a. effective quantum field theory.

@ __Non-locality in time__: Gainutdinov et al PLA(02) [atom-surroundings].

@ __Instantaneous interactions__: Bebronne PLB(08)-a0806 [in massive gravity].
@ __Other models and related topics__: Bastin et al IJTP(79) [combinatorial hierarchy model and "Schnurs"];
Jenkins ht/04-proc
[composite mediators and Lorentz symmetry breaking]; Dean PS(12) [fluctuation-induced interactions, non-equilibrium aspects]; Edwards JHEP(16)-a1507 [contact interactions between particle worldlines]; Roederer a1512 [pragmatic information and interaction between material bodies as a primary concept]; Laudato a1703 [geometric description of interactions, and non-commutative geometry]; > s.a. Three-Body Forces.

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send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 1 apr 2017