In General > s.a. Kinetic Theory; matter; ideal gas.
* Idea: A highly compressible fluid, in which the mean interparticle distance is much greater than their size.
@ General references: Rohrmann PhyA(05)cm/04 [statistical mechanics, new formalism]; Serre BAMS(10) [initial-boundary value problem].
@ Statistical mechanics: Fernández et al RVMP(16)-a1508 [uniqueness and stability of equilibrium measure]; > s.a. fluctuations; statistical mechanical systems.
@ Cold gases: Seiringer a0908-conf [mathematical]; Yukalov LP(13)-a1304 [tutorial].

Boson Gas > s.a. bose-einstein condensation; ideal gas; renormalization theory; sound propagation.
@ General references: Lenard JMP(66) [1D, impenetrable]; Chuu et al PRL(05) [sub-Poissonian number fluctuation]; Toms JPA(06) [statistical mechanics, confined geometry]; Erdős et al PRA(08)-a0806 [ground-state energy]; Giuliani & Seiringer JSP(09) [high density, ground-state energy]; Babichenko & Babichenko PLA(09) [in a random external field]; Escobedo et al AP(11)-a1008 [relaxation dynamics]; Shi PRA(10)-a0912 [two-species mixture]; Yin JSP(10) [upper bound on the free energy]; Cazalilla et al RMP(11) [1D bosons]; Petrova et al JPCS(11)-a1203 [Gaussian fluctuations]; Stamper-Kurn & Ueda RMP(13) [spinor Bose gases]; Price & Swendsen AJP(13)nov [numerical computation]; Aaen a1401 [dilute gas ground-state energy]; Akant et al a1602 [thermodynamic limit].
@ Interacting particles: Deuar & Drummond JPA(06); Martin IJTP(05) [repulsive potential, polymer representation]; Nattermann AJP(07)oct [weakly interacting, from heuristics and thermodynamics]; Hertzberg a1609 [classical vs quantum behavior]; > s.a. Virial Expansion.
@ Cold boson gas: Deeney & O'Leary PLA(11), EJP(11) [behavior below the Bose-Einstein temperature]; Camacho & Castellanos MPLA(12) [gravitomagnetic effect and the detection of the Earth's rotation]; Yngvason a1402-proc [lectures].
@ Photons: Leff AJP(02)aug [in introductory physics]; Panković & Kapor a1103 [complete quantum thermodynamics]; Sokolsky & Gorlach PRD(14)-a1307 [in a finite box, thermodynamics and finite-size effects]; > s.a. Adiabatic Transformation; generalized thermodynamics; modified lorentz group.

Fermion Gas > s.a. Virial Expansion.
* Cold: Quantum degenerate, strongly interacting Fermi gases, were first produced in 2002; They can be efficiently produced by evaporative cooling in an optical trap and are now widely studied; They provide model systems for tabletop studies of high-temperature superconductivity, neutron stars, and nuclear matter.
@ General references: Elze et al JPG(80) [ideal, relativistic]; Jin pw(02)apr [of atoms]; Seiringer CMP(06)mp/04 [pressure]; Lieb et al mp/05-proc [dilute, ground-state energy]; Leboeuf & Roccia PRL(06) [2-component, level density]; Jakšić et al CMP(09) [locally interacting, central limit theorem]; Jo et al Sci(09)sep [ferromagnetism]; Martiyanov et al PRL(10) [2D fermi gas, observation]; Blume Phy(10) [behavior from properties of three trapped atoms]; Zheng & Bonasera PLB(11) [density and temperature from quantum fluctuations]; Frank et al PRL(11) [energy of the perturbed Fermi sea]; Ku et al Sci(12)jan + news mit(12)jan [gas of fermionic atoms turning superfluid]; Yefsah et al PRL(11) [2D Rb atoms]; Barletti JMI-a1509 [hydrodynamic equations for an electron gas]; > s.a. Hartree-Fock Equation.
@ Finite-size: Gebert MPAG-a1406 [energy]; Su et al PLA(14) [isobaric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility]; Aydin & Sisman PLA(14) [discrete properties at nanoscale].
@ Cold: Thomas & Gehm AS(04)#3 [optically trapped]; Kowalski et al PRD(07)-a0712 [relativistic, T = 0]; Giorgini et al RMP(08); Thomas PT(10)may; Bedaque Phy(10) [parallel layers of ultracold fermions]; Kuhnle et al PRL(10) [universal relations for pair correlations]; Ayryan et al a1703; > s.a. clocks; composite quantum systems; Fermi-Einstein Condensation; superfluids.

And Gravity / Self-Gravitating Gas
@ Statistical mechanics: de Vega et al CSF(99)ap/98; de Vega & Sánchez PLB(00), NPB(02)ap/01, NPB(02)ap/01; de Vega & Siebert PRE(02)ap/01; de Vega & Sánchez ap/05-conf, CRS(06)ap; Ramos-Caro et al PRD(12)-a1206 [kinetic theory, axial symmetry].
@ Related topics: de Vega & Sánchez NPB(05)ap/03 [cluster expansion]; de Vega & Siebert NPB(05) [with dark energy]; Siebert PhD(05)ap; Bhattacharya et al a1702 [gas in an external gravitational field, entropy and surface scaling]; > s.a. gravitating matter.

Other Types > s.a. atomic physics; composite quantum systems; diffusion; Lattice Gas; magnetism [ionized gas]; statistical mechanical systems.
* Nearly ideal gases: Their equations of state can be written down as series expansion in some parameter characterizing their deviation from ideal-gas behavior; For example, the Mayer Series Expansion and the Virial Expansion.
* Lorentz gas: A system of fixed dispersing scatterers, with a single light particle moving among these and making specular collisions on encounters with the scatterers; It can be taken to model a completely ionized gas, in which ions are assumed to be stationary and interactions between electrons are neglected.
* Granular gases: The main characteristic of a granular gas, which makes it fundamentally different from ordinary molecular gases, is its tendency to form clusters, i.e., to spontaneously separate into dense and dilute regions.
@ Strongly interacting gases: Chang & Pandharipande PRL(05) [ground state]; Stewart et al PRL(10) + Sheehy Phy(10) [confirmation of Tan relations]; Hu et al NJP(10) [dilute fermion gas].
@ Non-ideal gases: Coutant & Rajeev a0807 [quantum thermodynamics]; Mancarella et al NPB(14)-a1407 [energy-pressure relation and deviation from scale-invariant gas behavior]; Pulvirenti & Tsagkarogiannis JSP(15)-a1409 [finite-volume corrections and correlations]; > s.a. extended thermodynamics [dense gases].
@ Lorentz gas: van Beijeren & Muelken PRE(05)nlin/04 [d dimensions, open boundaries, thermodynamic formalism]; Angstmann Morriss PLA(12) [triangular periodic, diffusion coefficient]; Marklof a1404-proc [low-density limit].
@ Granular gases: Brilliantov & Pöschel 04 [r JPA(05)#47]; Van der Weele CP(08) [clustering]; Bisi et al JCP(12) [in a host medium, numerical].
@ (Lattice) dipole gas: Dimock JSP(09)-a0812 [infinite-volume limit]; Le a1305 [correlation functions].
@ Other types: Price & Laibe a1411-proc [dust-gas mixtures, non-equilibrium simulations].
> Related topics: see Chaplygin Gas; condensed matter [liquids]; Dyson Gas [charged]; loops; resonance [Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases]; viscosity.

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