Condensed Matter |

**In General, Structure** > s.a. history of physics;
macroscopic quantum systems; technology.

* __Idea__:
Condensed-matter physics studies macroscopic matter with strong
interactions among constituent parts; The most common forms of condensed
phases are solids and liquids, but granular solids are now recognized by
scientists as a different state of matter.

* __2D__: Electron gases in
the quantum Hall effect; Planar sprinklings of atoms at the surface of
a superfluid have been studied; 1998, 2D atom gas
[@ Gauck et al PRL(98)
+ pn(98)dec].

@ __General references__:
Cohen PRL(08) [history];
Falkenburg & Morrison ed-15 [conceptual issues];
news pw(16)mar [Leggett views on the field];
Sergio & Pires 19 [topology and differential geometry].

@ __Books__: Weinberg 83 [I];
Krieger 96 [modeling matter];
Marder 00 [PT(01)jun];
Taylor & Heinonen 02 [r PT(03)may];
de Gennes 03;
Dove 03 [atomic view];
Annett 04;
March & Angilella 09 [molecules, clusters];
Sidebottom 12
[II, r PT(13)may];
> s.a. group theory.

@ __Books, III__:
Chaikin & Lubensky 95;
Sander 09
[r PT(10)jan];
Mahan 10;
Cohen & Louie 16;
Girvin & Yang 19.

@ __Continuum mechanics__:
Murdoch 12 [physical foundations];
Chaves 13;
Reddy 13;
Clayton 14 [and differential geometry];
Ostoja-Starzewski & Malyarenko PRS(14) [small-scale, beyond the second law of thermodynamics].

@ __Physics of materials__: Kaxiras & Joannopoulos 19;
National Academies rpt(19)
+ news pt(19)may [Decadal Survey].

@ __Computational__:
LeSar 13;
Romano & Marasco 14 [continuum mechanics using Mathematica].

@ __And quantum field theory__: Fradkin 13;
Mudry 14;
Wilczek PS(16)-a1604-in [intro];
Abanov a1708-ln [topology, geometry and quantum interference];
Marino 17;
Shankar 17;
Nastase 17 [string theory methods];
> s.a. boundaries; Feynman Diagrams;
quantum field theory; effective theories.

@ __Holographic methods__: Hartnoll CQG(09)-ln;
Ross CQG(12);
Zaanen et al 15;
> s.a. holography in field theory.

@ __Related topics__: Bach et al LMP(95) [*N* electrons in molecule, with radiation];
Nicolis et al a1501 [abstract approach based on spacetime symmetries].

> __Related topics__:
see Density Functional Method;
duality [and gauge-gravity duality]; heat
[thermal expansion]; phase transitions; Phonon;
Transport.

> __Properties__:
see Plasticity; specific
heat; Tensile Strength.

**Gaseous and Liquid Matter**
> s.a. atomic physics; Extended Objects;
fluid; phase transitions [liquid-gas distinction];
statistical mechanical systems.

* __Solution__: Molecule-sized
particles are completely dissolved in a solvent, binding with it chemically.

* __Colloid__:
Intermediate between solution and suspension, colloidal particles are
about 10^{−6} cm in diameter.

* __Suspension__: Large particles
float in a liquid medium, and would settle out if allowed to rest.

* __Result__: Liquids with expansive
freezing resist turning into viscous solid-like configurations when squeezed.

@ __Liquids__: issue PW(96)apr;
Granick PT(99)jul,
Taylor pw(02)feb [lubricants];
Maris & Balibar PT(00)feb [negative *p* and cavitation];
Jagla PRL(02) [expansive freezing and viscosity];
March & Tosi 02;
Plazanet et al JCP(04)
+ pw(04)sep [liquid that freezes when heated];
news pn(07)nov [spherical glass beads as zero-surface-tension liquids];
Cardoso Phy(08) [shapes of liquid drops];
Craster & Matar RMP(09) [thin films, dynamics and stability];
Das 11
[at freezing and beyond, r CP(12)#5];
blog bbc(14)dec [shapes of splashing, dripping liquids];
news pt(18)jan
[ultradilute liquids, much less dense than ideal gases];
> s.a. helium [thermodynamics]; liquid crystals;
non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; Surface Tension.

@ __Liquids with bubbles__: Dorbolo et al NJP(03)
+ pw(04)jan [antibubbles];
Liger-Belair EPJst(17) [effervescence].

@ __Supercooled liquids__: Cavagna PRP(09);
Yaida a1212-wd [effective field theory];
Dyer et al a1302-wd [critical exponents];
Robinson et al PRL(19)
+ Speck Phy(19) [morphometric approach].

@ __Quantum fluids__: Ristig & Gernoth FP(10) [strongly correlated];
Disertori et al a1105 [interacting Fermi liquids, parametric cutoffs];
Imambekov et al RMP(12) [1D];
Coleman 16 [many-body physics];
McGreevy TASI(15)-a1606-ln.

@ __Interfaces__: Bonn et al RMP(09) [wetting and spreading];
> s.a. Cheerios Effect.

> __Related topics__:
see Foam; Luttinger Liquid [1D];
Rayleigh Jets; Spin Liquid;
superfluids; water.

**Other Types of Condensed Matter**
> s.a. Metals; solid matter [including amorphous materials].

* __Nanoparticles__:
They exhibit properties which can be very different from those of bulk
matter, for two reasons, (i) quantum confinement effects of the crystal
excitations (electrons, excitons, phonons), and (ii) surface effects.

* __Soft matter__:
Polymers, colloids, surfactants (substances that tend to decrease the
surface tension of liquids in which they are dissolved) and liquid
crystals, a class of materials that has become increasingly important
[@ APS(15)may]; Soft matter can be easily deformed by thermal
fluctuations or an external stress, such as an electric or magnetic field,
which can turn a disordered material into an ordered structure used to perform
some function; For example, a small temperature change in liquid crystals
can push randomly positioned molecules to align in one direction, and the
ordered system can reflect light in useful ways.

@ __Soft matter__:
Jones 02;
Klinger PRP(10) [soft atomic motion modes in glass];
Powers RMP(10) [filaments and membranes in a viscous fluid];
Hu & Shi 10 [simulations];
Piazza 11 [r PT(11)dec];
Hirst 12
[r PT(13)nov];
Doi 13 [r AJP(14)jul];
news Guard(15)may [history];
news Phy(16) [*Hexacorda mollia*].

@ __Dense matter__: Heiselberg & Hjorth-Jensen PRP(00) [phases in neutron stars];
> s.a. nuclear physics; neutron stars.

@ __Related topics__: Berenbaum ThSc(95)sep [spider silk];
Kotliar & Vollhardt PT(04)mar [strongly correlated materials];
Ball Phy(13) [why red paints darkens over time];
Chakrabarti RAPS-a1712 [statistical physics of fracture and earthquake].

> __Related topics__:
see bose-einstein condensation; Continuous Media;
defects; Elasticity;
ice; Topological Materials.

**Other Levels of Structure**
> see atomic physics; matter [including
stability]; meta-materials [including granular and fibrous matter];
particle physics.

"God made solids, but surfaces are the work of the devil" – Wolfgang Pauli

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