Particles: Effects  

In General > s.a. field theory; particle models [relativistic quantum mechanics vs quantum field theory]; particle types; quantum field theory.
* Idea: The notion of particle requires that of a timelike Killing vector field; In Minkowski space there is a natural choice, but in general relativity it is ambiguous; Also, it is defined only when there are no interactions; Only for small λ, high frequency, one has an approximate notion; The problem is equivalent to that of defining an appropriate Feynman propagator.
* In 2D: They can belong to a 1D representation of the braid group (anyons), or other (superstrings, ...).
@ General references: Achinstein 91 [history-philosophy, I].
@ Elementary particles: Lev JPA(04)ht/02 [SO(1,4), only fermions, charged].
@ Antiparticles: Dastidar & Dastidar MPLA(99) [Feynman's backward t travel].
@ Wave-particle duality: Sánchez IJMPA(04)ht/03 [extended to strings/black holes].
@ Internal degrees of freedom: Kim APPB(96)ht, cm/96-proc, IJMPA(97)ht/96 [internal symmetries], qp/96-proc [and wavelets].

Particle Creation / Production by Electromagnetic Fields
* Schwinger effect: The quantum pair production of charged particles in a strong electric field; > s.a. inflation [quantum perturbations].
* Dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger effect: The enhanced Schwinger effect in the superposition of a strong and slow electric field with a weaker and faster pulse.
@ General references: Gitman JPA(77); Srinivasan & Padmanabhan gq/99; Narozhny et al PLA(03) [and accelerated observers]; Dunne & Schubert PRD(05)ht [worldline instantons]; Kim & Page PRD(07)ht [inhomogeneous fields]; Dietrich & Dunne JPA(07) [and Gutzwiller trace formula]; Baier & Katkov PLA(10) [by a photon in an electromagnetic field]; Schützhold a1004 [quantum-optics perspective]; Dittrich IJMPA(14) [Schwinger's formula]; Mu et al a1501 [minimal length effects].
@ Time-dependent fields: Szpak JPA(08)ht/06; Cooper & Nayak ht/06; Kleinert et al PRD(08)-a0807 [spacetime-dependent fields]; Mahajan AP(09); Dumlu PRD(09)-a0901 [equivalence of approaches]; Fedotov et al PRL(10) [and laser power limitation]; Longhi PRA(10)-a1009; Fey & Schützhold PRD(12)-a1110 [dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger effect]; Adorno et al EPJC(16)-a1605 [by peak electric field]; Blinne a1701-PhD [pulsed rotating fields].

Particle Creation / Production by Gravitational Fields > s.a. black-hole radiation; horizons; quantum field theory effects in curved spacetime.
* Remark: The effect is determined by the square of the Weyl tensor; This motivates a definition of entropy (Penrose), but how to go from one to the other is not known.
@ General references: Schrödinger (39); DeWitt PR(53); Parker PR(69); Sexl & Urbantke APA(67), PR(69); Zel'dovich & Pitaevski CMP(71); Chitre & Hartle PRD(77); Woodhouse PRL(76); in Birrell & Davies 82; Gasperini PTP(90); Arteaga PhD(07)-a0707; Nikolić a0708 [reliability of semiclassical description]; Pavlov G&C(08)-a0811 [spacetime description]; Fucci & Avramidi a0911-proc; Lin et al PRD(10)-a1001 [entanglement and entropy].
@ In the early universe: Hartle in(84); Zlatev et al PRD(98)ap/97 [parametric resonance]; Martin LNP(08)-a0704 [cosmological Schwinger effect]; Kaya IJMPD(09)-a0810 [fluctuations and ensemble picture]; Parker & Navarro-Salas a1702 [history]; > s.a. fields in FLRW spacetimes.
@ In non-trivial topology: Kandrup & Mazur MPLA(89); > s.a. quantum field theory in curved backgrounds.
@ Related topics: Wald CMP(77) [gravitational back-reaction], GRG(78) [effective stress-energy]; > s.a. dissipation; entropy.

Particle Decay > s.a. experiments in quantum mechanics; hilbert space [unstable]; pilot-wave interpretation; quantum effects.
* Decay rate: A non-exponential rate has been predicted based on the rigged Hilbert space formalism (Prigogine et al).
@ References: Müller PRD(97)ht [and acceleration]; Wilkinson Nat(97)jun + pn(97)jun [non-exponential]; Harshman AJP(03)oct [mass uncertainty]; Epstein IJGMP(08) [in de Sitter space]; Cabbolet a1502-conf [re unobservability of short-lived particles].

Other Effects > s.a. causality; force; gravitating matter; particle statistics; QED phenomenology; radiation.
@ Multiparticle effects: Atiyah & Sutcliffe PRS(02)ht/01 [configuration space and energy].
> Particle motion: see gravitating objects; newtonian orbits; scattering; test bodies.
> Related topics: see Detectors; energy [self-energy]; horizons; localization; resonance.

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