Particles: Effects |

**In General**
> s.a. field theory; particle models [relativistic quantum mechanics
vs quantum field theory]; particle types; quantum field theory.

* __Idea__: The notion of
particle requires that of a timelike Killing vector field; In Minkowski
space there is a natural choice, but in general relativity it is ambiguous;
Also, it is defined only when there are no interactions; Only for small
*λ*, high frequency, one has an approximate notion; The
problem is equivalent to that of defining an appropriate Feynman propagator.

* __In 2D__: They can belong to a 1D
representation of the braid group (anyons), or other (superstrings, ...).

@ __General references__: Achinstein 91 [history-philosophy, I].

@ __Elementary particles__: Lev JPA(04)ht/02 [SO(1,4), only fermions, charged].

@ __Antiparticles__: Dastidar & Dastidar MPLA(99) [Feynman's backward *t* travel].

@ __Wave-particle duality__:
Sánchez IJMPA(04)ht/03 [extended to strings/black holes].

@ __Internal degrees of freedom__: Kim APPB(96)ht,
cm/96-proc,
IJMPA(97)ht/96 [internal symmetries],
qp/96-proc [and wavelets].

**Particle Creation / Production by Electromagnetic Fields**

* __Schwinger effect__:
The quantum pair production of charged particles in a strong electric field.

* __Dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger
effect__: The enhanced Schwinger effect in the superposition of a strong and
slow electric field with a weaker and faster pulse.

@ __General references__: Gitman JPA(77);
Srinivasan & Padmanabhan gq/99;
Narozhny et al PLA(03) [and accelerated observers];
Dunne & Schubert PRD(05)ht [worldline instantons];
Kim & Page PRD(07)ht [inhomogeneous fields];
Dietrich & Dunne JPA(07) [and Gutzwiller trace formula];
Baier & Katkov PLA(10) [by a photon in an electromagnetic field];
Schützhold a1004 [quantum-optics perspective];
Dittrich IJMPA(14) [Schwinger's formula];
Korwar & Thalapillil a1808 [electric and magnetic field, at finite temperature].

@ __ Schwinger effect__:
Shakeri et al a1903 [during inflation];
Dai PRD(19)-a1908 [state of a particle pair];
> s.a. inflation and planck-scale physics [perturbations].

@ __Time-dependent fields__: Szpak JPA(08)ht/06;
Cooper & Nayak ht/06;
Kleinert et al PRD(08)-a0807 [spacetime-dependent fields];
Mahajan AP(09);
Dumlu PRD(09)-a0901 [equivalence of approaches];
Fedotov et al PRL(10) [and laser power limitation];
Longhi PRA(10)-a1009;
Fey & Schützhold PRD(12)-a1110 [dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger effect];
Adorno et al EPJC(16)-a1605 [by peak electric field];
Blinne a1701-PhD [pulsed rotating fields].

@ __Variations__: Mu et al a1501 [minimal length effects].

**Particle Creation / Production by Gravitational Fields**
> s.a. black-hole radiation; horizons;
quantum field theory effects in curved spacetime.

* __Remark__: The effect is
determined by the square of the Weyl tensor; This motivates a definition
of entropy (Penrose), but how to go from one to the other is not known.

@ __General references__: Schrödinger (39); DeWitt PR(53);
Parker PR(69);
Sexl & Urbantke APA(67),
PR(69);
Zel'dovich & Pitaevski CMP(71);
Chitre & Hartle PRD(77);
Woodhouse PRL(76);
in Birrell & Davies 82;
Gasperini PTP(90);
Arteaga PhD(07)-a0707;
Nikolić a0708 [reliability of semiclassical description];
Pavlov G&C(08)-a0811 [spacetime description];
Fucci & Avramidi a0911-proc;
Lin et al PRD(10)-a1001 [entanglement and entropy].

@ __In the early universe__: Hartle in(84);
Zlatev et al PRD(98)ap/97 [parametric resonance];
Martin LNP(08)-a0704 [cosmological Schwinger effect];
Kaya IJMPD(09)-a0810 [fluctuations and ensemble picture];
Parker & Navarro-Salas a1702 [history];
> s.a. fields in FLRW spacetimes.

@ __In non-trivial topology__:
Kandrup & Mazur MPLA(89);
> s.a. quantum field theory in curved backgrounds.

@ __Related topics__: Wald CMP(77) [gravitational back-reaction],
GRG(78) [effective stress-energy];
> s.a. dissipation; entropy.

**Particle Decay**
> s.a. experiments in quantum mechanics; hilbert space
[unstable]; pilot-wave interpretation; quantum effects.

* __Decay rate__: A non-exponential rate
has been predicted based on the rigged Hilbert space formalism (Prigogine et al).

@ __General references__: Müller PRD(97)ht [and acceleration];
Wilkinson Nat(97)jun
+ pn(97)jun [non-exponential];
Harshman AJP(03)oct [mass uncertainty];
Cabbolet a1502-conf [re unobservability of short-lived particles].

@ __In curved spacetimes__: Epstein IJGMP(08) [de Sitter space];
Lankinen & Vilja PRD(18)-a1805 [expanding FLRW universes].

**Other Effects** > s.a. causality; force;
gravitating matter; particle
statistics; QED phenomenology; radiation.

@ __General references__: Miyamoto PRD-a1805 [partile creation by instantaneous change of boundary conditions].

@ __Multiparticle effects__: Atiyah & Sutcliffe PRS(02)ht/01 [configuration space and energy].

> __Particle motion__: see gravitating
objects; newtonian orbits; scattering;
test bodies.

> __Related topics__: see Detectors;
energy [self-energy]; horizons;
localization; resonance.

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