Quantum
Field Theory Effects in Curved Spacetime |

**In General** > s.a. quantum field theory
in curved spacetime / black-hole
radiation; casimir effect;
Reeh-Schlieder Property.

* __Main predictions__: Hawking (black-hole) radiation and cosmological pair production; 2014, These predictions have been known since the 1970s but have not been experimentally verified yet, although some observations of radiation in acoustic black-hole analogs have been reported.

**Vacuum, Particle Creation** > s.a. bogoliubov
transformations;
gravitational thermodynamics; mirrors;
Normal Order; particle
effects; vacuum.

* __Idea__: The vacuum is
not stable, and particles can be created (in pairs); One can say that virtual
pairs of particles are torn apart by the geodesic
deviation; Fields are scattered non-trivially by the geometry, to which one
has to add the effects on time-dependent metrics.

* __History__: 1939, Schrödinger understood that cosmological expansion could lead to production or annihilation of matter.

* __Issue__: A reasonably
unambiguous definition of vacuum (and therefore, of "particle") seems
to exist only for the case of a spacetime with a preferred timelike vector
field, e.g., a stationary one;
Otherwise, different choices give inequivalent vacua.

@ __Reviews__: Srinivasan & Padmanabhan gq/98;
Sriramkumar & Padmanabhan
IJMPD(02)gq/99;
Haro IJTP(09) [interpretations]; Parker JPCS(15)-a1503.

@ __Vacuum proposals and general references__: Nachtmann ÖAW(67); Ashtekar & Magnon
PRS(74);
Rumpf & Urbantke
AP(78);
Panangaden JMP(79);
Castagnino in(85), & Sztrajman
PRD(88);
Bombelli & Wyrozumski CQG(89);
Castagnino & Laciana PTP(90), PTP(90);
Krtouš gq/95;
Bel gq/97-in;
Fischer & Dray GRG(99)gq/98;
Junker & Schrohe
AHP(02)mp/01 [abiadatic
vacuum]; Nikolić PLB(02)gq/01,
GRG(05);
Hamilton et al JHEP(04)ht/03 [from
Feynman propagators]; Ng gq/05 [intro];
Mahajan & Padmanabhan GRG(08)-a0708, GRG(08)-a0708 [formalism];
Cortez et al JCAP(10)-a1004 [unique Fock quantization]; Haro JPA(11) [mathematical perspective]; Mironov et al JETPL(12)-a1108 [and geodesic deviation]; Afshordi et al JHEP(12)-a1205, Fewster & Verch CQG(12)-a1206, Afshordi et al JHEP(12)-a1207 [free scalar quantum field in a globally hyperbolic region];
> s.a. hořava gravity.

@ __Anisotropic spacetimes__: Villalba IJTP(97);
Suresh IJTP(05);
Korunur & Havare gq/05-wd
[photons in Bianchi I]; > s.a. bianchi I models.

@ __Other cosmological spacetimes__: Huang PLB(90)ht/04 [inhomogeneous];
Biswas et al GRG(02)
[expanding spacetime]; Hong et al PRD(03),
PRD(03)
[tunneling universe]; Barrow et al PRD(08)-a0807 [at
a sudden singularity]; Gorobey & Lukyanenko a1105;
Ema et al a1604 [oscillating background]; > s.a. fields in FLRW models;
gödel spacetimes; inflation;
lorentz symmetry violation; quantum field theory in curved backgrounds.

@ __Special fields__: Mashkevich gq/98 [preferred
modes]; Maroto & Mazumdar
PRL(00)hp/99 [spin-3/2]; > s.a. dirac
quantum field theory.

@ __And observation__: Pigozzo et al a1510 [dark matter creation?].

**Other Effects** > s.a. anomalies; quantum
field theory [ambiguities]; quantum field theory in curved backgrounds;
semiclassical general relativity; unruh effect.

* __Suggestion__: One should
study non-linear quantum mechanics, since states may not obey the superposition
principle.

@ __Corrections to gravity__: Singh CQG(90);
Ford PRD(95)gq/94,
Ford & Svaiter PRD(96)gq [light-cone
fluctuations].

@ __Finite temperature__: Hu et al PRD(87);
Kulikov PhD(96)ht;
Laciana AP(98)ht/96;
Schützhold
et al qp/01 [quantum
radiation]; Labun & Rafelski PRD(12) [and acceleration]; > s.a. states in quantum field theory.

@ __Temperature, other__: Bertola et al ht/95 [discrete];
Buchholz & Schlemmer CQG(07)gq/06
[local].

@ __Negative energies__: Pfenning & Ford
PRD(97)gq/96 [FLRW
models],
PRD(98)gq/97 [static],
PhD(98)gq;
Song PRD(97);
Vollick PRD(00)gq [2D];
Ford
& Roman SA(00)jan [wormholes and warp drive];
Fewster gq/04; > s.a. quantum
field theory effects [including quantum inequalities and interest].

@ __Cosmological__:
Parker & Raval PRD(99)gq,
PRD(99)gq, gq/99; Agulló & Parker GRG-a1106 [spontaneous and stimulated creation of quanta during inflation]; Schützhold & Unruh a1203 [rev, seeds of cosmic structure and possible experimental realization].

@ __Early-universe physics__: Calzetta & Hu ht/95, PRD(95)gq [fluctuations,
decoherence and structure].

@ __Simulations in the lab__: Schützhold PTRS(08)-a1004;
Menicucci et al NJP(10)-a1005 [cosmological
expansion effects in a static ion trap]; Prémont-Schwarz JPCS-a1112 [effective QED]; Busch a1411-PhD [dispersive and dissipative effects modeled by condensed-matter analogs].

@ __Related topics__: Friedlander 75 [waves on curved spaces]; Borgman & Ford
PRD(04)gq/03 [geodesic
focusing]; Lima & Vanzella PRL(10)
+ news ns(10)may [gravity-induced vacuum dominance]; Acquaviva a1301-MG13, a1301-proc [thermal features].

> __Related topics__:
see black holes
and information;
causality violations; CPT
theorem; energy
conditions;
energy-momentum tensors; reference frames [accelerated].

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send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 25
nov
2016