Quantum Field Theory Effects in Curved Spacetime  

In General > s.a. quantum field theory in curved spacetime / black-hole radiation; casimir effect; Reeh-Schlieder Property.
* Main predictions: Hawking (black-hole) radiation and cosmological pair production; 2014, These predictions have been known since the 1970s but have not been experimentally verified yet, although some observations of radiation in acoustic black-hole analogs have been reported.

Vacuum, Particle Creation > s.a. bogoliubov transformations; gravitational thermodynamics; mirrors; Normal Order; particle effects; vacuum.
* Idea: The vacuum is not stable, and particles can be created (in pairs); One can say that virtual pairs of particles are torn apart by the geodesic deviation; Fields are scattered non-trivially by the geometry, to which one has to add the effects on time-dependent metrics.
* History: 1939, Schrödinger understood that cosmological expansion could lead to production or annihilation of matter.
* Issue: A reasonably unambiguous definition of vacuum (and therefore, of "particle") seems to exist only for the case of a spacetime with a preferred timelike vector field, e.g., a stationary one; Otherwise, different choices give inequivalent vacua.
@ Reviews: Srinivasan & Padmanabhan gq/98; Sriramkumar & Padmanabhan IJMPD(02)gq/99; Haro IJTP(09) [interpretations]; Parker JPCS(15)-a1503.
@ Vacuum proposals and general references: Nachtmann ÖAW(67); Ashtekar & Magnon PRS(74); Rumpf & Urbantke AP(78); Panangaden JMP(79); Castagnino in(85), & Sztrajman PRD(88); Bombelli & Wyrozumski CQG(89); Castagnino & Laciana PTP(90), PTP(90); Krtouš gq/95; Bel gq/97-in; Fischer & Dray GRG(99)gq/98; Junker & Schrohe AHP(02)mp/01 [abiadatic vacuum]; Nikolić PLB(02)gq/01, GRG(05); Hamilton et al JHEP(04)ht/03 [from Feynman propagators]; Ng gq/05 [intro]; Mahajan & Padmanabhan GRG(08)-a0708, GRG(08)-a0708 [formalism]; Cortez et al JCAP(10)-a1004 [unique Fock quantization]; Haro JPA(11) [mathematical perspective]; Mironov et al JETPL(12)-a1108 [and geodesic deviation]; Afshordi et al JHEP(12)-a1205, Fewster & Verch CQG(12)-a1206, Afshordi et al JHEP(12)-a1207 [free scalar quantum field in a globally hyperbolic region]; Fewster IJMPD(18)-a1803-conf; Ziyaee et al a2003 [covariant, Krein approach to particle creation]; > s.a. hořava gravity.
@ Anisotropic spacetimes: Villalba IJTP(97); Suresh IJTP(05); Korunur & Havare gq/05-wd [photons in Bianchi I]; > s.a. bianchi I models.
@ Other cosmological spacetimes: Huang PLB(90)ht/04 [inhomogeneous]; Biswas et al GRG(02) [expanding spacetime]; Hong et al PRD(03), PRD(03) [tunneling universe]; Barrow et al PRD(08)-a0807 [at a sudden singularity]; Gorobey & Lukyanenko a1105; Ema et al PRD(16)-a1604 [oscillating background]; > s.a. fields in de sitter spacetime; fields in FLRW models; gödel spacetimes; inflation; lorentz symmetry violation; quantum field theory in curved backgrounds.
@ Special fields: Mashkevich gq/98 [preferred modes]; Maroto & Mazumdar PRL(00)hp/99 [spin-3/2]; > s.a. dirac quantum field theory.
@ And observation: Pigozzo et al JCAP(16)-a1510 [dark matter creation?].

Other Effects > s.a. anomalies; quantum field theory [ambiguities]; quantum field theory in curved backgrounds; semiclassical general relativity; unruh effect.
* Suggestion: One should study non-linear quantum mechanics, since states may not obey the superposition principle.
@ Corrections to gravity: Singh CQG(90); Ford PRD(95)gq/94, Ford & Svaiter PRD(96)gq [light-cone fluctuations].
@ Finite temperature, thermal features: Hu et al PRD(87); Kulikov PhD(96)ht; Laciana AP(98)ht/96; Schützhold et al qp/01 [quantum radiation]; Labun & Rafelski PRD(12) [and acceleration]; Acquaviva a1301-MG13, a1301-proc; Fredenhagen et al a1809 [non-stationary spacetimes]; > s.a. states in quantum field theory.
@ Temperature, other: Bertola et al ht/95 [discrete]; Buchholz & Schlemmer CQG(07)gq/06, Dhumuntarao et al a1804 [local].
@ Negative energies: Pfenning & Ford PRD(97)gq/96 [FLRW models], PRD(98)gq/97 [static], PhD(98)gq; Song PRD(97); Vollick PRD(00)gq [2D]; Ford & Roman SA(00)jan [wormholes and warp drive]; Fewster gq/04; > s.a. quantum field theory effects [including quantum inequalities and interest].
@ Cosmological: Parker & Raval PRD(99)gq, PRD(99)gq, gq/99; Agulló & Parker GRG(11)-a1106 [spontaneous and stimulated creation of quanta during inflation]; Schützhold & Unruh LNP(13)-a1203 [rev, seeds of cosmic structure and possible experimental realization]; Koide & Kodama PLA(19)-a1811 [quantum fluctuations and spacetime curvatures].
@ Early-universe physics: Calzetta & Hu ht/95, PRD(95)gq [fluctuations, decoherence and structure].
@ Simulations in the lab: Schützhold PTRS(08)-a1004; Menicucci et al NJP(10)-a1005 [cosmological expansion effects in a static ion trap]; Prémont-Schwarz JPCS-a1112 [effective QED]; Busch a1411-PhD [dispersive and dissipative effects modeled by condensed-matter analogs]; Ganesh a1909 [spatial variation of temperature as analog model for curved spacetime]; Yang et al PRR(20)-a1906 [with quantum many-body systems].
@ Related topics: Friedlander 75 [waves on curved spaces]; Borgman & Ford PRD(04)gq/03 [geodesic focusing]; Lima & Vanzella PRL(10) + news ns(10)may [gravity-induced vacuum dominance]; Carballo-Rubio PRL(18) [semiclassical stellar equilibrium].
> Related topics: see black holes and information; causality violations; CPT theorem; energy conditions; energy-momentum tensors; reference frames [accelerated].

main pageabbreviationsjournalscommentsother sitesacknowledgements
send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 6 may 2020