Quantum Field Theory Effects in Curved Spacetime |

**In General** > s.a. quantum field theory in curved spacetime
/ black-hole radiation; casimir effect;
Reeh-Schlieder Property.

* __Main predictions__:
Hawking (black-hole) radiation and cosmological pair production; 2014,
These predictions have been known since the 1970s but have not been
experimentally verified yet, although some observations of radiation
in acoustic black-hole analogs have been reported.

**Vacuum, Particle Creation**
> s.a. bogoliubov transformations; gravitational
thermodynamics; mirrors; Normal Order;
particle effects; vacuum.

* __Idea__: The vacuum is not stable,
and particles can be created (in pairs); One can say that virtual pairs of
particles are torn apart by the geodesic deviation; Fields are scattered
non-trivially by the geometry, to which one has to add the effects on
time-dependent metrics.

* __History__: 1939,
Schrödinger understood that cosmological expansion could lead
to production or annihilation of matter.

* __Issue__: A reasonably
unambiguous definition of vacuum (and therefore, of "particle")
seems to exist only for the case of a spacetime with a preferred timelike
vector field, e.g., a stationary one; Otherwise, different choices give
inequivalent vacua.

@ __Reviews__: Srinivasan & Padmanabhan gq/98;
Sriramkumar & Padmanabhan IJMPD(02)gq/99;
Haro IJTP(09) [interpretations];
Parker JPCS(15)-a1503.

@ __Vacuum proposals and general references__: Nachtmann ÖAW(67);
Ashtekar & Magnon PRS(74);
Rumpf & Urbantke AP(78);
Panangaden JMP(79);
Castagnino in(85),
& Sztrajman PRD(88);
Bombelli & Wyrozumski CQG(89);
Castagnino & Laciana PTP(90),
PTP(90);
Krtouš gq/95;
Bel gq/97-in;
Fischer & Dray GRG(99)gq/98;
Junker & Schrohe AHP(02)mp/01 [abiadatic vacuum];
Nikolić PLB(02)gq/01,
GRG(05);
Hamilton et al JHEP(04)ht/03 [from Feynman propagators];
Ng gq/05 [intro];
Mahajan & Padmanabhan GRG(08)-a0708,
GRG(08)-a0708 [formalism];
Cortez et al JCAP(10)-a1004 [unique Fock quantization];
Haro JPA(11) [mathematical perspective];
Mironov et al JETPL(12)-a1108 [and geodesic deviation];
Afshordi et al JHEP(12)-a1205,
Fewster & Verch CQG(12)-a1206,
Afshordi et al JHEP(12)-a1207 [free scalar quantum field in a globally hyperbolic region];
Fewster IJMPD(18)-a1803-conf;
Ziyaee et al a2003
[covariant, Krein approach to particle creation];
> s.a. hořava gravity.

@ __Anisotropic spacetimes__: Villalba IJTP(97);
Suresh IJTP(05);
Korunur & Havare gq/05-wd [photons in Bianchi I];
> s.a. bianchi I models.

@ __Other cosmological spacetimes__:
Huang PLB(90)ht/04 [inhomogeneous];
Biswas et al GRG(02) [expanding spacetime];
Hong et al PRD(03),
PRD(03) [tunneling universe];
Barrow et al PRD(08)-a0807 [at a sudden singularity];
Gorobey & Lukyanenko a1105;
Ema et al PRD(16)-a1604 [oscillating background];
> s.a. fields in de sitter spacetime;
fields in FLRW models; gödel
spacetimes; inflation; lorentz
symmetry violation; quantum field theory in curved backgrounds.

@ __Special fields__: Mashkevich gq/98 [preferred modes];
Maroto & Mazumdar PRL(00)hp/99 [spin-3/2];
> s.a. dirac quantum field theory.

@ __And observation__: Pigozzo et al JCAP(16)-a1510 [dark matter creation?].

**Other Effects** > s.a. anomalies; quantum
field theory [ambiguities]; quantum field theory in curved backgrounds;
semiclassical general relativity; unruh effect.

* __Suggestion__: One should study non-linear
quantum mechanics, since states may not obey the superposition principle.

@ __Corrections to gravity__:
Singh CQG(90);
Ford PRD(95)gq/94,
Ford & Svaiter PRD(96)gq [light-cone fluctuations].

@ __Finite temperature, thermal features__:
Hu et al PRD(87);
Kulikov PhD(96)ht;
Laciana AP(98)ht/96;
Schützhold et al qp/01 [quantum radiation];
Labun & Rafelski PRD(12) [and acceleration];
Acquaviva a1301-MG13,
a1301-proc;
Fredenhagen et al a1809 [non-stationary spacetimes];
> s.a. states in quantum field theory.

@ __Temperature, other__:
Bertola et al ht/95 [discrete];
Buchholz & Schlemmer CQG(07)gq/06,
Dhumuntarao et al a1804 [local].

@ __Negative energies__: Pfenning & Ford PRD(97)gq/96 [FLRW models],
PRD(98)gq/97 [static],
PhD(98)gq;
Song PRD(97);
Vollick PRD(00)gq [2D];
Ford & Roman SA(00)jan [wormholes and warp drive];
Fewster gq/04;
> s.a. quantum field theory effects [including quantum inequalities and interest].

@ __Cosmological__: Parker & Raval PRD(99)gq,
PRD(99)gq,
gq/99;
Agulló & Parker GRG(11)-a1106 [spontaneous and stimulated creation of quanta during inflation];
Schützhold & Unruh LNP(13)-a1203
[rev, seeds of cosmic structure and possible experimental realization];
Koide & Kodama PLA(19)-a1811 [quantum fluctuations and spacetime curvatures].

@ __Early-universe physics__:
Calzetta & Hu ht/95,
PRD(95)gq [fluctuations, decoherence and structure].

@ __Simulations in the lab__: Schützhold PTRS(08)-a1004;
Menicucci et al NJP(10)-a1005 [cosmological expansion effects in a static ion trap];
Prémont-Schwarz JPCS-a1112 [effective QED];
Busch a1411-PhD
[dispersive and dissipative effects modeled by condensed-matter analogs];
Ganesh a1909
[spatial variation of temperature as analog model for curved spacetime];
Yang et al PRR(20)-a1906 [with quantum many-body systems].

@ __Related topics__: Friedlander 75 [waves on curved spaces];
Borgman & Ford PRD(04)gq/03 [geodesic focusing];
Lima & Vanzella PRL(10)
+ news ns(10)may [gravity-induced vacuum dominance];
Carballo-Rubio PRL(18) [semiclassical stellar equilibrium].

> __Related topics__:
see black holes and information;
causality violations; CPT theorem;
energy conditions; energy-momentum tensors;
reference frames [accelerated].

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