Dark Matter  

In General > s.a. observational cosmology; types of dark matter.
* Idea: Matter that interacts only gravitationally and possibly through the weak force and is thus very hard to detect, but can account for some observed properties of the universe; In inflation, it is necessary in order to reconcile the initial density fluctuations with present short-range correlations between galaxies; There may be more than one kind, acting on different scales.
* Motivation: Galaxy rotation curves, galaxy-cluster velocity dispersions, gravitational lensing, patterns in large-scale structure (clustering, filaments, voids) , separation between mass and ordinary matter in colliding galaxy clusters, galaxy correlation functions, cmb anisotropies.
* Status: 2018, The existence of dark matter is accepted by the vast majority of astrophysicists, but there is a minority who think it doesn't exist and that the effects attributed to it are a consequence of modified gravity.
* Outstanding issues: Quantitatively reproduce the internal motions of galaxies and the Tully-Fisher relation; 2018, Explain the fact that satellite galaxies orbiting larger galaxies tend to be distributed on a single plane, at least in the case of the Milky Way, M31 and Centaurus A.

Effects, Indirect Evidence > s.a. cosmic rays; dark-matter detection; dark-matter distribution; gamma rays.
* Dynamical methods: Transverse motion of stars in our galaxy; Differential rotation of our galaxy and other spirals; Escape velocity from our galaxy (lower bound from highest star velocities seen); Internal motions in galaxy clusters, including Milky Way satellites in the Local Group; These are sensitive to clustering below the probed scale.
* Other methods: Flatness of the universe and observed density.
* Astrophysical effects: If ultralight bosons exist in nature, they would cause superradiant instabilities in spinning black holes ("black-hole bomb"), although the timescale for the instability is typically very large (> s.a. matter around black holes).
@ Reviews: Roncadelli ap/03-proc; Mambrini & Muñoz JCAP(04)hp [vs direct]; De Freitas & Peirani G&C(05)ap [searches]; Bertone & Merritt MPLA(05)ap; Mavromatos a1111-conf [theoretical scenarios]; Roos JModP(12)-a1208, Luković et al IJMPA(14) [in astrophysics and cosmology]; Cirelli a1511; Gaskins CP(16)-a1603 [indirect searches].
@ Galactic rotation curves: Carmeli IJTP(98)ap/96 [vs expansion]; Edery PRL(99)gq; Bekenstein et al PRL(00)ap/99; Lake PRL(04); Menzies & Mathews gq/06/CQG [general relativity not enough]; Rubin PT(06)dec [M31]; news Forbes(17)jun; > s.a. dark matter on cosmological scales; types of dark matter.
@ Interactions: Ullio et al PRD(02) [into γ-rays]; Böhm et al ap/02-conf [strength]; Sancisi ASP-ap/03 [coupling to visible matter]; Mangano et al PRD(06)ap, Serra et al PRD(10) [neutrino interactions]; Bovy & Farrar PRL(09)-a0807 [and fifth force, bounds]; Grib & Pavlov G&C(09)-a0810 [conversion into visible matter in AGNs]; Palomares-Ruiz & Siegal-Gaskins JCAP(10)-a1003 [annihilations and decays]; Stiele et al PRD(10) [self-interaction, and cosmology]; Davoudiasl et al PRL(10) + news pw(10)nov [with X particles of hidden sector]; Zheng et al NPB(12)-a1012 [constraints on interactions]; Kouvaris PRL(12)-a1111 [self-interactions, constraints]; Conrad a1411-in [WIMP indirect detection, rev]; Khlopov MPLA(14)-a1411 [rev]; news SA(15)apr [potential detection of non-gravitational self-interactions].
@ Structure formation: Del Popolo ap/02; Diemand et al Nat(05)ap [small halos in the early universe]; Silk LNP(07)ap/06; Primack NJP(09)-a0909 [small-scale issues]; Boyarsky et al a0911 [matter distribution and scaling]; > s.a. early universe; galaxy formation.
@ And cmb: Padmanabhan & Finkbeiner PRD(05)ap [annihiliations and polarization]; Hooper et al PRD(07)-a0705 [annihilations and WMAP haze]; Mertsch PhD(10)-a1012 [anomalies in cosmic-ray and microwave sky maps].
@ Other astrophysics and cosmology: Blanchard & Douspis A&A(05)ap/04 [clusters]; Ahluwalia-Khalilova ap/06 [globular clusters and age of the universe]; Iorio JCAP(06)gq [solar system orbits]; Loeb & Weiner PRL(11) [and dwarf-galaxy cores]; Cheung et al JCAP(14)-a1408 [in a bouncing universe]; Loeb & Muñoz Phy(18) [21-cm absorption in light from the first stars]; Nielsen et al a1903 [gravitational atoms].
> Online resources: see fine-structure constant [variation]; higher-dimensional gravity; perturbations.

General References > s.a. history of astronomy; relativistic cosmology / Conformal Gravity.
@ Status, reviews: news Sci(91)jan; Griest ap/95-proc; Raffelt ap/95-proc; Bahcall ap/96; Jetzer ap/96; Hu et al PRD(99)ap/98; Bosma CMDA(98)ap-in; Ellis PS(00)ap/98-conf [particle candidates]; Turner PS(00)ap/99-proc, ap/99-proc; Bergström RPP(00)hp; Sellwood & Kosowsky ap/00-in [Λ+CDM vs modified general relativity]; Evans ap/01-conf [vs non-standard gravity]; Carr ap/01-conf [MACHOS]; Khalil & Muñoz CP(02); Spooner & Kudryavtsev ed-01; Primack ap/01-proc, ap/03-IAU; Olive ap/03-ln; Bergström hp/03-proc; Rees PTRS(03)ap/04; Bahcall et al ed-04; Muñoz IJMPA(04) [experimental]; Sahni LNP-ap/04 [and dark energy]; Overduin & Wesson PRP(04)ap; Bertone et al PRP(05) [particles]; Frampton ap/05-conf [and dark energy, intro]; news BBC(06)feb; Zacek a0707-proc; Peskin JPSJ(07)-a0707-ln; Ellis a0811-conf; Einasto a0901-in; Primack a0902-proc [issues with observations and simulations of galaxies]; D'Amico et al a0907-ln; issue NPPS(09)194 [proc]; Colafrancesco AIP(10)-a1004; Garrett & Dūda AiA(11)-a1006; Regis a1008-conf [particle dark matter]; Gelmini a1009-conf; Matarrese et al ed-11; Einasto a1109-conf; Capozziello et al a1110-in [and alternatives]; news sn(13)jan, PhysOrg(13)feb [status and predictions]; Capozziello & Lambiase NAP-a1304; Peebles a1305; Einasto BJP(13)-a1308-TX; Luković et al IJMPA(14)-a1411 [in cosmology]; Lisanti a1603-ln; Kunz et al PRD(16)-a1604 [and large-scale structure]; Fornengo a1701-eConf; Freese a1701-MG14.
@ I: Disney 84; Tucker & Tucker 88; PW(95)jun, p39; Krauss 89, 00; Hooper 06 [and dark energy]; Freese 14; Blanchet & Famaey Rech-a1602.
@ I, articles: news forbes(18)mar [dark matter, not modified gravity].
@ II, articles: Krauss SA(86)dec; Trimble CP(88); Tremaine PT(92)feb; Auteri ap/07-proc; Roos a1001 [evidence]; Lincoln TPT(13)mar [short intro].
@ II, books: Parker 89; Srednicki ed-90; Riordan & Schramm 91; Sciama 93; Overduin & Wesson 02.
@ And other matter: Mazzei ap/04 [rev]; Wilczek hp/04-ch [anthropic reasoning]; Bousso & Hall PRD(13) [multiverse argument].
@ Arguments against: Milgrom SA(02)aug; Roberts EJTP-ap/05; Barak & Leibowitz a0909 [no need for dark matter or dark energy]; Mannheim a1903-GRF.
@ Related topics: Cline ap/05-conf [vs MOND]; Ahluwalia IJMPD(09)-a0904 [relativity in the dark sector, Elko example]; Capistrano & Cabral AP(14) [geometrical aspects]; Lee a1510 [quantum entanglement]; > s.a. anthropic principle; philosophy of physics.
> Online resources: see Astronomy Today article.

Alternatives to Dark Matter > s.a. galaxies [no need for dark matter].
* MOND: Modified Newtonian Dynamics was considered as a possible alternative for a few years; In 2002–2003 new data, especially from the SDSS, contradicted MOND predictions; However, some people are still impressed with its rotation curve predictions.
* Other theories: Other alternatives include Moffat's bimetric gravity and Mannheim's conformal gravity.
@ General references: Vishwakarma S&S(06)ap/04 [galaxy rotation]; Cooperstock & Tieu ap/05/ApJ [general relativity does the job], commemt Garfinkle CQG(06)gq/05; Mégier a1409 [non-relativistic limit of Einstein's equation in an expanding universe]; Lopez-Corredoira a1808 [rev].
@ MOND: Sanders & McGaugh ARAA(02)ap; Aguirre IAU-ap/03 [rev]; Pointecouteau ap/06 [vs dark matter]; Bekenstein in(10)-a1001.
@ Modified gravity: Sellwood & Kosowsky ap/01-in; Mannheim PPNP(06)ap/05 [general discussion]; Sobouti A&A(07)ap/06 [f(R) gravity]; Chalmers pw(06)jun; Sereno & Jetzer MNRAS(06)ap [and solar planets]; Vanderburgh PhSc(05)dec [conceptual]; Kahya & Woodard PLB(07)-a0705 [proposed test]; Brownstein & Moffat MNRAS(07) + pw(07)nov [Bullet cluster]; Brownstein PhD(09)-a0908 [comparing MoG, MOND and CDM]; Moffat a1101-conf [rev]; Foreman & Scott PRL(12)-a1108, reply McGaugh a1109 [unreliability of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation as a test]; Khoury PRD(15)-a1409 [dark-matter fluid + modified gravity]; Cembranos JPCS(16)-a1512; Cadoni et al PLB(18)-a1707 [as an effective fluid]; Zloshchastiev Univ-a2011 [scale-dependent gravity]; > s.a. bimetric theories; higher-order gravity; theories of gravitation; unified theories [Weyl-Dirac].
@ Related topics: Funkhouser gq/03 [Mach-type forces]; Pal et al PLB(05) [effective 4D theory from branes]; Moffat ap/06 [lensing]; Carati & Galgani a0707-wd [outer mass distribution in (clusters of) galaxies]; Cooperstock & Tieu MPLA(08)-a0712 [general relativistic velocity]; Rodrigues et al JCAP(10)-a0911 [renormalization-group corrections to G]; Barak & Leibowitz a1003; Hajdukovic ASS(11)-a1106 + news PhysOrg(11)aug, ASS(13) + news ns(13)jan [gravitational vacuum polarization, and proposed test with Eris and Dysnomia]; Bertolami et al PRD(12)-a1111 [non-minimal matter coupling]; Koch & Wright JMOGC(12)-a1208 [turbulent flow of spacetime]; Sanejouand a1401 [alternative form for Hubble's law]; de Oliveira et al GRG(15)-a1501 [and Milky Way dynamics]; Tuveri & Cadoni a1904 [quantum gravity effects]; Deur et al a1909 [non-linear effects in general relativity].

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