Matter and Fields near Black Holes  

Various Effects > s.a. cosmic censorship [black-hole spinup]; geodesics; maxwell and dirac fields in curved spacetime; neutrinos; Phantom Fields.
* Energy extraction: Motivated by the search for viable models for the central engine of quasars, AGNs, and GRBs; One proposal is the Blandford-Znajek process, in which relativistic charged particle jets are emitted by the magnetic field surrounding a black hole, with the emanating plasma jets being treated as a continuous fluid; Another mechanism is the Penrose process, in which the plasma around a black hole is treated as a collection of charged particles.
* Infalling particles: Particles with high orbital angular momentum l will not fall into a black hole; For a Schwarzschild black hole, the maximum value of an infalling particle's l is 4; For a Kerr black hole of angular momentum parameter a, an infalling particle's l must satisfy −2 [1 + (1+a)1/2] < l < +2 [1 + (1−a)1/2].
* Colliding particles: For two infalling particles of mass m that start from rest at infinity and collide near the surface of a Schwarzschild black hole, the maximum center-of-mass energy is 2·51/2 m; Near a maximal (a = 1) Kerr black hole the maximum is 21/2 m [(l2−2) / (l1−2) + (l1−2) / (l2−2)]1/2.
* Infalling matter: The signature for radiation from a companion in a binary system, accretion disk, especially X-rays, includes no pulsating character, but possibly with modulation from disk and black-hole spin.
* Black-hole bomb: A spontaneous spindown effect arising from a superradiant instability and leading to an explosion; The existence of fast-spinning black holes can be used to constrain the mass of light exotic particles.
@ General references: Hod PRD(11)-a1201 [the fastest way to circle a black hole]; Witek et al PRD(13)-a1212 [massive vector fields and instabilities]; Sadeghian PhD(13)-a1308 [star clusters and dark matter]; Penna PRD(14)-a1406 [black hole Meissner effect]; Berti a1410-ln [rev]; Wang a1606-PhD [scalar and vector fields].
@ Bombs, explosions: Hod PLB(13)-a1304 [no-bomb theorem, Reissner-Nordström black holes]; Cardoso GRG(13)-a1307-conf; Pani & Loeb PRD(13) [and spectral distortions of the cmb].
@ Energy extraction: Li & Paczyński ApJL(00)ap; Krolik AIP(01)ap/00 [magnetic]; Frolov & Fursaev PRD(01)ht/00 [with cosmic strings]; Kim et al JCAP(03) [magnetic alignment]; Straumann AIP(08)-a0709 [rev]; Finster et al CMP(09) [rigorous treatment]; Liu et al ApJ(12)-a1207 [from a non-Kerr rotating black hole]; Schnittman PRL(14)-a1410 [from a Kerr black hole]; news pt(19)feb; > s.a. Penrose Process.
@ Infalling matter: Tanaka et al Nat(95)jun [gravitational redshift]; Chakrabarti IJP-ap/98 [rev]; Biermann et al ap/02-proc; Baushev IJMPD(09)-a0805 [colliding particles]; Jacobson & Sotiriou PRL(09) [overspinning with a test body]; Funkhouser PRS(10) [particle absorption, and thermodynamics]; Bouhmadi-Lopez et al PRD(10)-a1003 [overspinning no-go result]; Iocco & Pato PRL(12) + news sn(12)jul [lithium synthesis]; news at(13)apr [supermassive black hole in NGC 4845 and brown dwarf]; Brustein & Medved a1503, Afshordi & Yazdi CQG(17) [with firewall]; Mazzitelli EJP-a2006 [on energy divergence, pedagogical]; > s.a. phenomenology [infalling observer].
@ Jet formation: Koide et al ap/99-TX19, ApJ(00)ap/99; de Felice & Zanotti GRG(00)ap/99; Gariel et al A&A-gq/07 [from Penrose process]; Yunes Sci(10)-a1009; Palenzuela et al CQG(11)-a1102 [robustness of the Blandford-Znajek mechanism]; > s.a. astrophysics; Jets; supermassive black holes.
@ Other phenomena: news E&S(15)oct + JPL(15)oct [X-ray flare from Mrk 335 corona observed].
> Related topics: see chaotic motion; Superradiance; tests of general relativity with light and with orbits.

References > s.a. gamma-ray astronomy; gravitational lensing; phenomenology [including magnetospheres].
@ General references: Kuchiev PRD(04)gq/03, EPL(04)gq/03 [albedo]; de Diego et al GRG-ap/04 [electric charge].
@ Accretion: Chakrabarti PRP(96)ap; Watarai & Mineshige PASJ-ap/03 [inner disk edge]; Das MNRAS(02)ap [transonic aspects], MNRAS(04)ap/03 [matter close to event horizon]; McKinney ap/05/ApJ, ap/05/ApJ [and jet formation]; news pw(08)apr [optical bursts]; Abramowicz et al ed-10; Takahashi & Harada CQG(10) [thermal X-ray spectrum and Kerr bound on angular momentum]; Korobkin et al PRD(11) [stability of accretion disks]; Abramowicz & Fragile LRR(13) [rev]; Blaes SSR(14)-a1304 [rev]; Joshi et al CQG(14)-a1304 [distinguishing black holes from naked singularities]; Begelman a1410-proc; > s.a. black-hole perturbations; Penrose Diagram.
@ Black holes as accelerators: Jacobson & Sotiriou PRL(10)-a0911 [Kerr black holes]; Lake PRL(10)-a1001; Zaslavskii JETPL(10)-a1007 [non-rotating charged black holes], PRD(10) [rotating black holes]; Zaslavskii CQG(11)-a1011 [general explanation], PRD(11)-a1104 [kinematic explanation]; McWilliams PRL(13)-a1212 [won't work]; Grib & Pavlov EPL(13)-a1301; Zaslavskii PRL(13)-a1301; Harada & Kimura CQG(14)-a1409 [rev]; Grib & Pavlov G&C(15)-a1410 [and observation of high-energy particles]; news pw(15)mar [use by alien civilizations?]; Zaslavskii EPL-a1603 [for spinning particles]; > s.a. kerr black holes.
@ Effects on light: Johannsen ApJ(13)-a1501 [photon rings around Kerr and Kerr-like black holes]; Pan & Xu a1704 [spin-orbit interaction and light twist].
@ Observers around black holes: Natário GRG(13)-a1207 [optimal escape from a stable circular orbit]; Biswas a1504 [spaceship near the horizon].
@ Horizon evidence: Menou et al ap/97-MG8, gq/98-GR15; García et al ApJ(01)ap/00; Narayan & Heyl AIP(02)gq; Abramowicz et al A&A(02)ap [no proof]; Done & Gierliński MNRAS(03)ap/02 [signature]; Narayan A&G(03)ap [no X-ray bursts]; Barbieri & Chapline PLB(12)-a0812 [gamma-ray spectrum].
@ Scattering: Sánchez ht/97; Levin PRD(99)ap/98 [echo from chaotic scattering]; Grib & Pavlov a1007 [particle collisions near Kerr black holes].

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