Weinberg-Salam Electroweak Theory  

In General > s.a. history of particle physics; particle physics.
* Idea: A unified theory of electroweak interactions, a gauge theory with gauge group G = SU(2) × U(1) (the left-handed and the hypercharge groups).
* History: It was proposed in the 1960s by Weinberg, Salam, and Glashow, but did not attract much attention until 't Hooft showed that it was renormalizable.
* Motivation: It explains the masslessness of the neutrino and the structure of the weak interactions by the presence of the gauged chiral symmetry, and incorporates electrodynamics by using the concept of spontaneously broken symmetry.
* Symmetry breaking: The symmetry group G is broken to the electromagnetic U(1) by the Higgs boson.
@ I, II: Weinberg SA(74)jul; Langacker & Mann PT(89)dec; Aitchison & Hey 12.
@ General: Salam & Ward NC(59), NC(61); Glashow NP(61); Salam & Ward PL(64); Weinberg PRL(67); Salam in(68); Paschos 07; Porsev et al PRL(09) [precision determination of coupling from parity violation in a Cs atom]; Gegelia a1207 [origin of the theory]; Quigg 13.
@ Overviews: Taylor 76; Weinberg RMP(80); Salam RMP(80), Sci(80)nov; Glashow RMP(80); Altarelli et al IJMPA(98) [status]; Gurtu IJMPA(03) [tests]; Wood IJMPA(07); Iliopoulos a1305-ln.
@ Quantum theory: Kraus AP(98)ht/97 [renormalization]; Su ht/00 [Hamiltonian path integral].
@ Symmetry breaking: Dobrescu PLB(99) [from extra dimensions]; Lepora & Kibble JHEP(99) [vacuum geometry]; Arkani-Hamed et al JHEP(02); Hill & Simmons PRP(03) [strong dynamics]; Quigg CP(07) [and LHC]; Djouadi PRP(08) [Higgs boson]; Zubkov a1004 [and Holst term in gravitational action]; Sannino JPCS(10)-a1010 [rev]; Canarutto IJGMP(11)-a1009 [electroweak geometry and conformal symmetry breaking]; Bhattacharyya Pra(12)-a1201-proc; Zubkov JHEP(13) [from gauge theory of the Lorentz group non-minimally coupled to fermions]; Kibble a1502-conf [history]; Bednyakov et al PRL(15) + Kusenko Phys(15) [the vacuum is metastable].

Particle Content > s.a. electron; hadrons [including quarks]; higgs boson; particle models; particle types [leptons]; solutions of gauge theories [sphalerons].
* In general: The fundamental particles are quarks, leptons and Higgs particles, with forces mediated by W ±, Z0 and γ (the Ws and Z get their masses from the Higgs particles); With a Cartan basis for the Lie algebra of the gauge group G, the gauge connection can be written

AG = Aem + AZ + AW+ + AW ,

where the first two generate the Cartan subalgebra.
* Intermediate vector bosons: The particles W +, W and Z0, mediators for the weak interaction.
* Z0: Mass mZ ≈ 90 GeV, lifetime τ ≈ 10–25 s.
@ General references: Hung & Quigg Sci(80)dec; Rubbia RMP(85); Taubes 86, Denegri PRP(04) [discovery]; Tenchini & Verzegnassi 07.
@ W bosons: Nikishov JETP(01)ht [in a constant electromagnetic field]; news Phy(12)apr [precision measurement of mass].

Other References > s.a. atomic physics; lattice gauge theories.
@ Modified versions: McCorkle ht/96 [from spacetime theory of matter]; Finkelstein IJMPA(05)ht/04 [q-deformed]; Loewe et al PLB(05)hp/04 [finite T and density]; Moffat & Toth a0906-conf [without a Higgs particle]; Ilderton et al JPA(10) [in terms of SU(2) gauge-invariant variables, and Higgs as conformal metric]; Kober IJMPA(11) [with a minimal length]; Karan a1701 [without an SU(2) doublet]; > s.a. supersymmetry phenomenology; variation of constants.
@ In curved spacetime: Pervushin & Smirichinski gq/97 [conformally invariant, and general relativity]; Lecian & Montani IJMPD(06)gq [geometrization, Riemann-Cartan]; Bentivegna et al a1708 [impact of new physics]; > s.a. relativistic cosmological models [coupled to gravity].
@ Related topics: news pw(05)jul [decrease with distance]; > s.a. astronomical objects [electroweak stars]; brans-dicke theory; Quantions.
> And unification of interactions: see GUTS [with strong interactions]; unified theories [with gravity].


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