Supersymmetry Phenomenology |

**In General** > s.a. dark matter; particle types;
modified quantum mechanics; supersymmetric field theories.

* __History__: The term
"supersymmetry" (as well as "superspace") was coined
by Abdus Salam.

* __Expectation and bounds__:
From LEP, *m*_{s} > 100 GeV, and
the expectation is that *m*_{s} >
*m*_{Z}.

* __1996__: For most theorists
it *is* there, in some form, at some energies; Claim by CDF of *ee*
→ *γγ* event that must be explained by supersymmetry –
went away.

* __2000__: The energy required
to produce sparticles should not be much higher than that of present accelerators.

* __2001__: Anomalous *μ*
magnetic moment reported by BNL experiment – went away; Despite the absence of
any experimental evidence, it is considered by many physicists as 'about to be
discovered'.

* __2002__: New lower bound
of 195 GeV on the gluino mass.

* __2004__: Indirect hints from
experiment point toward a supersymmetry-breaking scale just above the electroweak
scale (successful prediction of gauge coupling unification, observed value of the
top quark mass just below the supersymmetric fixed-point value, observed pattern
of electroweak symmetry breaking, absence of large corrections to precision
measurements in the electroweak sector, and *b*-quark–*τ*-lepton
unification); If correct, sparticles may be discovered at the Tevatron Run II
at Fermilab, but almost certainly at the LHC at CERN starting in 2007, and then
we should be able to either confirm or (fapp) rule out supersymmetry; A number
of interesting processes will be probed once superpartners are discovered, including
the existence of a fermionic Goldstone particle associated with spontaneous
supersymmetry breaking, and supersymmetric flavor violation, which should provide
insights into the underlying mechanism of supersymmetry breaking.

* __2011__: LHCb experiment
fails to find evidence of supersymmetric particles, puts theory on the spot.

> __Alternatives__:
see conformal invariance in physics.

**From Supergravity** > s.a. black
holes; supergravity.

* __Consequences__: If one
does not want extra gravitons, the maximum spacetime dimension is 11; Long-range
gravitational forces are not affected, only the short range ones; The graviton,
quarks and other particles acquire a superpartner.

@ __Cosmology__: Barrau & Ponthieu PRD(04) [gravitino production and
cmb].

**Other Gravity and Cosmology** > s.a. FLRW
models; types of supersymmetric theories [gauge theories].

@ __General references__: Tung PLA(00)gq/99;
Feng AP(05)hp/04-ln [rev];
Scott et al JCAP(10)-a0909 [CMSSM and dark matter in galaxies];
Escamilla-Rivera et al JCAP(10)-a1009 [classical FLRW model];
Bœhm et al PRD(13) + news pw(13)apr [and cmb anisotropy]; Khlopov Symm(15)-a1501 [primordial black holes and other probes];
> s.a. inflationary
scenarios.

@ __And dark energy__: Rosales & Tkach a0811-in;
Brax et al PRD(12).

@ __Diffeomorphism-invariant, generally covariant theories__: Gamboa & Zanelli AP(88);
Husain PRD(96)ht;
Piguet CQG(00)ht [vector supersymmetry],
ht/00-conf
[and ghost field equations].

@ __And minisuperspace__: D'Eath & Hughes PLB(88).

@ __Supersymmetry breaking in cosmology__: Riotto NPB(98)
[and inflation];
Tkach et al MPLA(99); Linde a1608 [small cosmological constant without affecting the predictions of the original inflationary scenario];
> s.a. cosmological constant; supersymmetry in field theory.

> __Related topics__: see brans-dicke theory;
deformed uncertainty relations; Hypergravity;
quantum cosmology; semiclassical quantum gravity;
supergravity.

**References** > s.a. matter
and gravitation [couplings]; supersymmetry in field theory [including breaking].

@ __General__: Olive hp/99-ln [constraints];
Witten IJMPA(04) [rev];
Ramsey-Musolf & Su PRP(08) [low-energy precision tests];
Gaillard & Zumino EPJC(09)-a0805 [history, and string theory];
Takahashi & Yanagida PLB(11)-a1101;
Beskidt et al JHEP(12) [searches];
Castelvecchi SA(12)may [supersymmetry's PR problem]; Fuks a1401-Hab;
AbdusSalam & Velasco-Sevilla PRD(16)-a1506 [where to look];
Acharya et al PRL(16)-a1604 [the lightest visible-sector supersymmetric particle is likely to be unstable].

@ __News__: pn(96)apr [CDF event];
pw(11)feb,
bbc(11)aug [no evidence yet];
ns(12)nov [constraints from *B*_{s} decay
to *μ*^{+}*μ*^{−}];
news sa(14)may [and the current LHC upgrade].

@ __HEP__: Zumino PRP(84)
[*N* = 1 supersymmetry and supergravity];
Ellis et al PLB(04)hp [detection prospects];
Feng et al RMP(10).

@ __HEP, at the LHC__: Khalil CP(03);
Zerwas NPPS(10) [fundamental parameters];
Heinemeyer NPPS(10) [predictions];
Konar et al PRL(10)
+ Langacker Phy(10);
Heinemeyer Phy(11) [discovering supersymmetric
particles may be more complicated than previously thought].

@ __Lorentz symmetry violation__: Berger & Kostelecký PRD(02)ht/01;
Groot Nibbelink & Pospelov PRL(05);
Jain & Ralston PLB(05)hp [suppression].

@ __Related topics__: Witten IJMPA(95)
[different masses without supersymmetry breaking];
Riotto PRD(12)-a1211 [proposal of cosmological explanation for mass pattern].

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