In General > s.a. dark matter; particle types;
modified quantum mechanics; supersymmetric field theories.
* History: The term "supersymmetry" (as well as "superspace") was coined by Abdus Salam.
* Expectation and bounds: From LEP, ms > 100 GeV, and the expectation is that ms > mZ.
* 1996: For most theorists it is there, in some form, at some energies; Claim by CDF of ee → γγ event that must be explained by supersymmetry – went away.
* 2000: The energy required to produce sparticles should not be much higher than that of present accelerators.
* 2001: Anomalous μ magnetic moment reported by BNL experiment – went away; Despite the absence of any experimental evidence, it is considered by many physicists as 'about to be discovered'.
* 2002: New lower bound of 195 GeV on the gluino mass.
* 2004: Indirect hints from experiment point toward a supersymmetry-breaking scale just above the electroweak scale (successful prediction of gauge coupling unification, observed value of the top quark mass just below the supersymmetric fixed-point value, observed pattern of electroweak symmetry breaking, absence of large corrections to precision measurements in the electroweak sector, and b-quark–τ-lepton unification); If correct, sparticles may be discovered at the Tevatron Run II at Fermilab, but almost certainly at the LHC at CERN starting in 2007, and then we should be able to either confirm or (fapp) rule out supersymmetry; A number of interesting processes will be probed once superpartners are discovered, including the existence of a fermionic Goldstone particle associated with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, and supersymmetric flavor violation, which should provide insights into the underlying mechanism of supersymmetry breaking.
* 2011: LHCb experiment fails to find evidence of supersymmetric particles, puts theory on the spot.
> Alternatives: see conformal invariance in physics.
> s.a. black holes; supergravity.
* Consequences: If one does not want extra gravitons, the maximum spacetime dimension is 11; Long-range gravitational forces are not affected, only the short range ones; The graviton, quarks and other particles acquire a superpartner.
@ Cosmology: Barrau & Ponthieu PRD(04) [gravitino production and cmb].
Other Gravity and Cosmology > s.a. FLRW
models; types of supersymmetric theories [gauge theories].
@ General references: Tung PLA(00)gq/99; Feng AP(05)hp/04-ln [rev]; Scott et al JCAP(10)-a0909 [CMSSM and dark matter in galaxies]; Escamilla-Rivera et al JCAP(10)-a1009 [classical FLRW model]; Bœhm et al PRD(13) + news pw(13)apr [and cmb anisotropy]; Khlopov Symm(15)-a1501 [primordial black holes and other probes]; > s.a. inflationary scenarios.
@ And dark energy: Rosales & Tkach a0811-in; Brax et al PRD(12).
@ Diffeomorphism-invariant, generally covariant theories: Gamboa & Zanelli AP(88); Husain PRD(96)ht; Piguet CQG(00)ht [vector supersymmetry], ht/00-conf [and ghost field equations].
@ And minisuperspace: D'Eath & Hughes PLB(88).
@ Supersymmetry breaking in cosmology: Riotto NPB(98) [and inflation]; Tkach et al MPLA(99); Linde JCAP(16)-a1608 [small cosmological constant without affecting the predictions of the original inflationary scenario]; > s.a. cosmological constant; supersymmetry in field theory.
> Related topics: see brans-dicke theory; deformed uncertainty relations; Hypergravity; quantum cosmology; semiclassical quantum gravity; supergravity.
References > s.a. matter and gravitation
[couplings]; supersymmetry in field theory [including breaking].
@ General: Olive hp/99-ln [constraints]; Witten IJMPA(04) [rev]; Ramsey-Musolf & Su PRP(08) [low-energy precision tests]; Gaillard & Zumino EPJC(09)-a0805 [history, and string theory]; Takahashi & Yanagida PLB(11)-a1101; Beskidt et al JHEP(12) [searches]; Castelvecchi SA(12)may [supersymmetry's PR problem]; Fuks a1401-Hab; AbdusSalam & Velasco-Sevilla PRD(16)-a1506 [where to look]; Acharya et al PRL(16)-a1604 [the lightest visible-sector supersymmetric particle is likely to be unstable].
@ News: pn(96)apr [CDF event]; pw(11)feb, bbc(11)aug [no evidence yet]; ns(12)nov [constraints from Bs decay to μ+μ−]; news sa(14)may [and the current LHC upgrade].
@ HEP: Zumino PRP(84) [N = 1 supersymmetry and supergravity]; Ellis et al PLB(04)hp [detection prospects]; Feng et al RMP(10).
@ HEP, at the LHC: Khalil CP(03); Zerwas NPPS(10) [fundamental parameters]; Heinemeyer NPPS(10) [predictions]; Konar et al PRL(10) + Langacker Phy(10); Heinemeyer Phy(11) [discovering supersymmetric particles may be more complicated than previously thought].
@ Lorentz symmetry violation: Berger & Kostelecký PRD(02)ht/01; Groot Nibbelink & Pospelov PRL(05); Jain & Ralston PLB(05)hp [suppression].
@ Related topics: Witten IJMPA(95) [different masses without supersymmetry breaking]; Riotto PRD(12)-a1211 [proposal of cosmological explanation for mass pattern].
– journals – comments
– other sites – acknowledgements
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