Black-Hole (Equilibrium) Thermodynamics  

In General > s.a. laws of black-hole thermodynamics; black-hole entropy and radiation; 2D gravity; horizons [including local temperature].
* Idea: The laws of black-hole mechanics have a thermodynamical interpretation if we identify the entropy as S ~ A/4 and the temperature

TH = \(\hbar\)κ/2πck ,       (= \(\hbar\)c3/8πGMk for a Schwarzschild black hole, or (d–3)\(\hbar\)c/4πkrS in d dimensions) ,

where κ is the classically calculated surface gravity of the black hole; TH is negligible for M ~ MSun.
* Development: Black-hole thermodynamics started as a formal analogy between the laws of black-hole dynamics and those of thermodynamics; 1973, Real black-hole thermodynamics initially seemed like a crazy idea, because classically S = ∞ and T = 0, until Hawking discovered the concept of black-hole radiation.
* Equilibrium: Only non-rotating, neutral black holes can be in (unstable) equilibrium with thermal radiation; > s.a. perturbations [stability].
@ Early work: Hawking PRL(71), in(73), & Hartle CMP(72); Bekenstein PRD(73); Bardeen et al CMP(73).

Quantum Black Holes > s.a. gravitational thermodynamics; quantum black holes [entropy, ...]; semiclassical quantum gravity; asymptotic safety.
@ General references: Kuchař PRD(94)gq; Ashtekar & Krasnov gq/98-fs; Obregón & Ryan MPLA(98) [lP-size]; Wu & Cai gq/99 [quantum laws]; Bekenstein in(02)gq/01 [info]; Singh & Vaz GRG(04); Moretti & Pinamonti Ent(10)gq/05; Nozari & Sefiedgar PLB(06)gq [comparison of approaches]; Husain & Mann CQG(09)-a0812 [quantum-gravity effects near Planck scale].
@ Special types: Kowalski-Glikman PLA(98)gq [asymptotically-AdS]; Vaz & Witten PRD(01)gq [from collapse]; Nozari & Mehdipour IJMPA(06)gq/05 [in large extra dimensions, from gup]; Tawfik JCAP(13)-a1307 [from gup, and Salecker-Wigner inequalities]; Gorji et al PLB(14)-a1312 [Schwarzschild black hole, polymer quantization].
@ Related topics: Fursaev MPLA(95) [and renormalization]; Ellis et al MPLA(97)gq/96 [decoherence]; Scharf NCB(98)gq/97 [microcanonical].

References > s.a. gravitational thermodynamics and specific types of black holes [including other theories of gravity].
@ Reviews: Davies RPP(78); Bekenstein PT(80)jan; Fulling & Ruijsenaars PRP(87); Wald 94, gq/97-proc, CQG(99)gq, LRR(01)gq/99; Jacobson gq/98-MG8; Bekenstein SHPMP(01)gq/00; Page NJP(05)ht/04; Marolf ht/04-GR17 [and entropy bounds]; Ross ht/05-ln; Carlip LNP(09)-a0807; Grumiller et al a1402-in; Carlip IJMPD(14)-a1410; Wallace a1710, a1710, Wall a1804-nPhys [introductory]; Wald a1805-in [Bekenstein's work].
@ General references: Hayward PRD(94)gq/93, PRL(98)gq; Sorkin gq/97-in; Mukohyama PhD(98)gq; Jacobson & Parentani FP(03)gq [general horizons]; Hegyi IJMPD(09)-a0904-GRF; Sivaram & Kenath IJMPD(09)-a0905-GRF; Fatibene et al a1205-proc; Modak PhD(12)-a1209 [semiclassical approaches]; Falls & Litim PRD(14)-a1212 [from largest to smallest masses]; Giddings PRD(13)-a1308 [basic features of black-hole statistical mechanics]; Curiel a1408 [classical basis]; in Gruber a1601-MG14 [in finite time]; Pradhan AHEP(16)-a1603 [thermodynamic product relations]; Ruppeiner a1803.
@ Microcanonical description: Casadio et al gq/97-MG8; Huang PRD(00)ht [Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström]; Casadio & Harms Ent(11)-a1101.
@ Enthalpic thermodynamics: Cvetič et al PRD(11)-a1012 [black-hole enthalpy]; Dolan CQG(11)-a1106 [mass as enthalpy, pressure and volume, virial expansion]; Lemos & Zaslavskii a1806 [cosmological constant as independent variable].
@ Other approaches: Whiting & York PRL(88); Nieuwenhuizen PRL(98) [TbhTbath]; Belgiorno PLA(03)gq/02 [Carathéodory's]; Kiefer CQG(04) [and quasinormal modes]; Camblong & Ordóñez PRD(05)ht/04 [near-horizon conformal invariance]; Carlip PRL(07)gq [horizon constraints and conformal field theory]; Tian & Wu PRD(10) [from equipartition of energy and holography]; Pollock IJMPD(11) [from the Wheeler-DeWitt equation]; Thomson & Dyer a1203 [angular-velocity ensemble]; Quevedo et al PS(14)-a1304 [dependence on the choice of statistical ensemble]; Asin et al PRD(15)-a1412 [as gases of indistinguishable punctures with a chemical potential]; An et al JHEP(16)-a1602 [variational]; Krishnan et al JHEP(16)-a1609 [from path integral with Neumann boundary conditions]; > s.a. modified thermodynamics.
@ Thermal equilibrium: Gibbons & Perry PRL(76), PRS(78); Loustó IJMPD(97)gq/96 [heat capacity, free energy].
@ Irreversibility: Zurek PRL(82), Page PRL(83) [of evaporation]; Hod PRD(99)gq [of capture process].

Related Topics > s.a. critical phenomena; quasilocal general relativity; specific heat.
@ Area as adiabatic invariant: Bekenstein in(99)gq/98, in(00)gq/98; Mayo PRD(98)gq.
@ And information theory: Hosoya et al PRD(01); Bekenstein & Mayo GRG(01)gq-GRF; > s.a. black holes and information.
@ And Ruppeiner theory: Åman et al JPCS(07)gq/06; Mirza & Zamaninasab JHEP(07) [Reissner-Nordström black holes]; Tiwari a0801; Ruppeiner PRD(08)-a0802 [Kerr-Newman black holes]; Åman & Pidokrajt JPCS(10)-a1001 [and critical phenomena]; Anderson GRG(13)-a1206 [blockwise simplification for Kerr-Newman black hole]; Ruppeiner a1309-conf [rev].
@ Other geometry on state space: Åman et al GRG(06) [information geometry]; Quevedo GRG(08)-a0704-fs; Álvarez et al PRD(08)-a0801 [Legendre-invariant metric and phase transitions]; Tiwari a0801 [quantum corrections]; Janke et al JPA(10)-a1005 [various metrics, Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole]; Liu et al JHEP(10)-a1008 [metric based on the Hessian matrix of the free energy]; García-Ariza et al Ent(14)-a1407 [meaning]; Åman et al Ent(15)-a1507 [survey of thermodynamic metrics]; Hendi et al EPJC(15)-a1506 [new metric]; Gruber et al a1603-MG14 [session summary]; > s.a. 3D black holes and specific types of black holes [geometrothermodynamics]; Weinhold Metric.
@ With gup: Amelino-Camelia et al CQG(06)gq/05 [and modified dispersion]; Myung et al PLB(07)gq/06; Nouicer PLB(07)-a0704 [corrections from gup]; Bina et al PRD(10)-a1001; Gangopadhyay IJTP(16)-a1405; Dutta & Gangopadhyay IJTP(16)-a1408 [symmetric gup]; > s.a. gup phenomenology.
@ Phase transitions: Davies PRS(77) [Kerr]; Sokołowski & Mazur JPA(80); Lau PLA(94) [Reissner-Nordström], PLA(94) [Kerr-Newman]; Loustó GRG(95) [and 2D description]; Cai JKPS(98)gq/99-conf [extremal limit]; Huang & Lau PLA(99) [Kerr-Newman]; Stephens & Hu IJTP(01); Surya et al PRL(01)ht [Anti-de Sitter]; Carlip & Vaidya CQG(03)gq [charged black hole in cavity]; Jing & Pan PLB(08)-a0802 [Reissner-Nordström, and quasinormal modes]; Berti & Cardoso PRD(08)-a0802 [and quasinormal modes]; Sahay et al JHEP(10)-a1002 [Kerr-Newman-AdS]; Sahay et al JHEP(10), Banerjee et al PRD(11)-a1005 [Kerr-AdS]; Biswas & Chakraborty ASS(11)-a1104 [for 5D Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet black holes]; Banerjee et al JHEP(12) [in AdS space, and fundamental concepts of thermodynamics]; Altamirano et al a1401-Gal [rotating black holes and black rings]; Roychowdhury PhD-a1403 [in AdS space]; Mandal et al PRD(16)-a1608 [universality]; > s.a. black-hole hair; quantum phase transitions; reissner-nordström black holes.
@ With quantum fields: York gq/93; Hochberg gq/95-talk; Zaslavskii PRD(98)gq/97 [extreme limit].
@ Other topics: Candelas & Sciama PRL(77) [fluctuations and dissipation]; Balbinot & Barletta CQG(89) [back-reaction]; Garfinkle & Landsberg GRG(89) [work]; Brown et al PRL(91) [and complex geometry]; Teitelboim PRD(96)ht/95 [surface fields]; Ruppeiner PRD(07) [fluctuations]; Kubizňák & Mann a1404-GRF, Kubizňák et al CQG(17)-a1608 [black-hole chemistry, and new phases].

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