Magnetism: Effects and Phenomenology  

Effects In General > s.a. magnetism [in matter, including measurement]; nuclear physics [fusion]; superconductivity.
* Barnett effect: The magnetization of a rotating body, discovered in 1915 by S J Barnett; > s.a. gravitomagnetism.
* Larmor frequency: The precession frequency of a magnetic dipole in a uniform magnetic field; Example: For a particle with classical gyromagnetic ratio Γ = q/2mc, its value is ωL = −qB/2mc.
* Maximum value: According to a QED calculation of the effect of a magnetic field on positronium, the maximum magnetic field is 1042 G, since at a higher value "the vacuum would explode by producing collapsed positronia"; Another calculation disputes the existence of the effect; Maximum achieved on Earth 1200 T.
* Magnetodielectric materials: Materials whose dielectric constant can be modulated by an applied magnetic field.
* Magnetic cooling: A.k.a. magnetocaloric effect, the cooling caused by heat absorption by previously aligned magnetic nuclei when the external magnetic field is removed.
@ General references: Farley & Price AJP(01)jul [long, finite solenoid]; Jancewicz & Brzeski EJP(05) [magnetic field surfaces]; Labinac et al AJP(06)jul [cylindrical coil]; de Oliveira & von Ranke PRP(10) [magnetocaloric effect, theoretical aspects]; Lai SSR(15)-a1411 [physics in very strong magnetic fields].
@ Effects on charges: Gascón & Peralta-Salas PLA(04) [impossibility of reaching source wires]; Rousseaux phy/05 [j × A interaction]; Öztürk AJP(12)may [trajectories of charged particles trapped in Earth's magnetic field]; > s.a. quantum systems.
@ Magnetic flux: Darabi a0901 [non-quantization in solenoids]; > s.a. superconductivity [quantization in superconducting rings].
@ Magnetic breaking / damping: Levin et al AJP(06)sep [and terminal speed]; Onorato & De Ambrosis AJP(12)jan.
@ Breaking and reconnecting of magnetic field lines: Burch & Drake AS(09); Mozer & Pritchett PT(10)jun; Dumin & Somov a1407, Lazarian et al LNP(14)-a1407 [reconnection].
@ Maximum value? Shabad & Usov PRL(06) + pw(06)may [suggested effect]; Leung & Wang PLB(09)-a0901 [no]; news pw(18)sep [1200 T achieved].
@ Braided magnetic fields: Yeates & Hornig PP(08)-a1208 [topology], JPCS(14)-a1304 [complete topological invariant].
@ Special types of materials: Choudhuri et al PRL(12) + Lawes Phy(12) [materials with large magnetodielectric coupling]; Lee et al PRP(13) [spin transport in materials and magnetization dynamics]; Nomura et al PRL(19) [phonon magnetochiral effect]; news cosmos(19)jul [liquid magnets].
@ Other phenomenology: Erlichson AJP(89)jul, AJP(98)may [Biot-Savart experiment]; Duncan AIP(00)ap [physics of very high magnetic fields]; news sa(15)jul [the weakest magnetic field on Earth, and its uses]; Ong & Li a2103 [quantum matter in ultrahigh magnetic fields].
> Other effects: see aharonov-bohm effect; Hall Effect; polarization [Faraday rotation].
> Related topics: see Bohr Magneton; monopoles; QED phenomenology; quantum measurement; Skyrmions.

Magnetohydrodynamics: Plasma Physics > s.a. magnetism in astrophysics and cosmology; matter; photon; QED [effects]; Vlasov Equation.
* Idea: The physics of ionized plasmas, in which the magnetic field plays a major role in the fluid dynamics.
* Quantum: The full kinetic model is provided by the Wigner equation, the quantum analog of the Vlasov equation.
@ General references: Heyl & Hernquist PRD(99)ht/98 [QED effects]; Van Putten JMP(02)ap/98 [covariant]; Manfredi qp/05-proc [quantum description]; Killian & Rolston PT(10)mar [ultracold neutral plasmas]; Vandenbroucke et al ApJ(13)-a1305 [partially ionized gas, and galaxy formation]; Macchi AJP(20)sep [undergraduate level].
@ Books: Goldston & Rutherford 95; Eliezer & Eliezer 01; Boyd & Sanderson 03; Kulsrud 04 [for astrophysics, r PT(06)jan]; Suplee 09 [I]; in Thorne & Blandford 15; Davidson 16 [e1 r PT(02)jan]; Galtier 16.
@ Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations: Andreussi et al PoP(12)-a1202 [non-canonical]; Banerjee & Kumar EPJC(16)-a1601 [novel action principle].
@ Smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics: Price JCP(12)-a1012 [intro]; Lewis et al a1606-proc [overview, challenges].
@ Turbulence: Berera & Hochberg cm/01 [and renormalization]; Verma PRP(04); Mac Low ap/04-in [in star formation]; Zhou et al RMP(04) [and time scales, astrophysics]; Plunian et al PRP(13) [shell models].
@ Ultrarelativistic: Thompson & Blaes PRD(98); Thoma ap/01-proc, RMP(09) [finite-temperature, perturbative QED approach].
@ And particle acceleration: Spitkovsky ApJ(08)-a0802 [Fermi mechanism]; Osmanov a1507 [novel mechanism].
@ Force-free electrodynamics: Jacobson PRD(15)-a1504 [and Aristotelian electrodynamics]; Compère et al PRD(16)-a1606 [field lines, and force-free foliations]; > s.a. black-hole phenomenology; magnetism in astrophysics and cosmology.
@ In curved spacetime, and gravity: Ignatyev G&C(95)-a1101; De Villiers & Hawley ApJ(03)ap/02 [general relativistic code]; Duez et al PRD(05)ap [numerical methods], PRD(05)ap [and gravitational waves]; Shibata & Sekiguchi PRD(05)ap [full general relativity]; Noble et al ApJ(06)ap/05; Neilsen et al CQG(06)gq/05 [and black hole excision]; Porth et al ApJS(19)-a1904 [numerical source model comparison]; > s.a. gravitational collapse; schwarzschild spacetime.
@ General-relativistic, numerical: Giacomazzo & Rezzolla CQG(07)gq-in [WhiskyMHD code]; De Villiers a0802 [code with radiation]; Font LRR(08); Lora-Clavijo et al ApJS(15)-a1408 [CAFE code].
@ Related topics: Brown & Yaffe PRP(01) [effective field theory]; Bekenstein & Oron PRE(00)ap/00, FP(01)gq/00 [circulation theorem]; Stone & Gardiner AIP(05)ap [numerical scheme]; Brodin et al NJP(06)ap [electromagnetic wave propagation and dispersion]; news pt(16)jan [neutrino effects].
> Online resources: see The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience website.

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