Types of Dark Matter  

In General > s.a. content of the universe; dark matter [including alternatives]; dark-matter models [including particle physics].
* 1990: Cold baryonic dark matter seems to be the most reasonable guess.
* 1991: Cold dark matter predictions are wrong for large-scale structure [@ Nat(91)jan].
* 1996: Hybrid models, in which galactic dark matter is most likely cold and non-exotic, while at the cluster level it is probably hot.
* 2000: Large objects ruled out by microlensing, WIMPs are the prime candidates (s.a. "direct detection").
* 2001: New forms of cold dark matter appear possible, like comet-type objects.
* 2003: Λ-CDM (the CDM being possibly WIMPs and axions) appears to fit large-scale structure observations well; The Central Cusps and Too Many Satellites problems appear to be partly solved, so Angular Momentum is the main remaining CDM problem.
* 2004: Most likely is Λ-CDM with WIMPs in conventional cosmology, or higher-dimensional sources if spacetime needs to be extended.
* 2010: Λ-CDM with WIMP dark-matter particles still considered best candidate, specially after recent possible direct detection by CDMS.
* 2013: M Turner, "Dark matter is made of something new... there is no particle in the Standard Model that can account for dark matter" [@ PhysOrg(13)feb].
* 2014: There is a large consensus that dark matter is likely to be made of supersymmetric particles that should be seen soon in so-called direct detection experiments, which have been running for several years; Particle physicists have cornered themselves experimentally in this sense.
* 2016: WIMPs and axions remain the front-runners, but physicists are beginning to move beyond these two possibilities.
* 2017: The idea of a hypothetical whole "dark sector" has been around for several years and is becoming more popular [@ news sci(17)mar].
@ General references: Taoso et al JCAP(08)-a0711 [ten-point test]; Melia IJMPD(09)-a0812 [constraints from expansion of cosmic horizon]; Bergström NJP(09)-a0903; Kouvaris & Tinyakov PRD(10)-a1004, de Lavallaz & Fairbairn PRD(10)-a1004 [constraints from neutron stars]; Polisensky & Ricotti PRD(11)-a1004 [constraints from Milky Way satellites]; news pw(10)jun [evidence for two types]; Dienes & Thomas PRD(12)-a1106 [multi-component framework]; Barranco et al MNRAS-a1301 [equation of state from rotation curves]; Ren & He JCAP(15)-a1410 [with purely gravitational interactions].
@ Reviews: Jetzer ap/96; Mikheeva ASR(03) [hybrid, cosmological models]; Lazarides LNP(07)hp/06 [particle physics]; Krauss ap/07-proc; Feng ARAA(10)-a1003 [from particle physics].

Hot Dark Matter > s.a. neutrino; quintessence; types of gauge fields [symplectic].
* Idea: Made of light energetic particles like light neutrinos, etc; 2002, Using KamLAND data, Ων ≤ 0.070 h–2.
* Predictions: In Zel'dovich's hydrodynamic theory, one gets a top-down, "pancake'' picture of galaxy formation, start at the cluster level, with 1015 mSun.
* Difficulties: Hard pressed to reproduce correlations, but possible with early galaxy formation triggered by cosmic strings; Neutrinos cannot account for galactic halo dark matter, because of the Pauli principle.
@ Neutrinos: Sciama Nat(90)dec, PRL(90); NS(91)mar9, p30; Hogan Nat(91)may; Primack BL(01)ap; Lieu ap/05/ApJL [excluded]; Nieuwenhuizen EPL(09)-a0812 [non-relativistic].
@ Sterile neutrinos: Seljak et al PRL(06)ap; Biermann & Munyaneza AIP(08)ap/07; Shaposhnikov ap/07-MGXI; Riemer-Sørensen & Hansen a0901 [decay, in dwarf galaxies]; Hamann & Hasenkamp JCAP(13)-a1308; Abazajian PRL(14); Bringmann et al JCAP(14).
@ Other fermions: Guendelman & Kaganovich gq/03 [CLEP of regular and dark fermions]; Hannestad et al JCAP(05)ap [vs bosons]; Boeckel & Schaffner-Bielich PRD(07)-a0707; Böhmer et al JHEP(10)-a1003 [non-standard spinors]; Dürr & Fileviez PLB(14)-a1309 [fermionic field with baryon number]; Grams et al CQG(14)-a1407 [fermions]; Chavanis et al PRD(15)-a1410 [King model]; Dürr et al PRD(15)-a1506 [with new gauge symmetry]; Shelton et al PRL(15) [tests with supermassive black holes].
@ Other types: Dick ht/96, Cho & Kim PRD(09)-a0711 [dilaton]; Cheng mp/04 [Weyl's vector boson].

Cold Dark Matter > s.a. Axinos; axions; cmb; dark-matter detection; dark-matter distribution; graviton [massive].
* Idea: Exotic, heavy particles like photinos, higgsinos, scalar neutrinos, WIMPs or axions, particles like the χ with a mass between 1/1000 and 1 mp and interact with one another through a massive particle called a "dark photon", or things like small black holes, brown dwarves (MACHOs), or molecular clouds.
* WIMPs: Weakly Interacting Massive Particles; The Lightest Supersymmetric Particles, that cannot decay because of R-parity, and interact with other matter only via the weak nuclear force and gravity; Thought to have a mass of about 50 mp; 2006, Some form of neutralino WIMP is considered the leading candidate; SuperWIMPS may be detected at LHC; 2016, WIMPS still not showing up in detectors, supersymmetry arguments for them becoming shakier.
* MACHOs: MAssive Compact Halo Objects, of various possible types; 2005, According to some microlensing experiments, they may account for about 20% of the galactic dark halo, but there are not enough for them to be the main component of dark matter; 2015, A MACHO halo cannot be ruled out.
* Predictions: Leads to bottom-up galaxy formation (start with 105 mSun).
* Difficulties: Has some difficulties with distribution of galaxies, but seems to work well for the Milky Way; 2003, Seems to work well on large scales, may have difficulties on small (subgalactic) scales.
@ Reviews: Tasitsiomi IJMPD(03) [small scales]; Baer & Tata a0805-ch [and the LHC]; Feng in(10)-a1002 [non-WIMP candidates].
@ WIMPs: Freese et al PRD(01)ap [detection]; Feng et al PRL(03)hp, PRD(03)hp, PRL(06) [superWIMPs]; Cerdeno & Green NIMB(11)-a1002-ch [detection]; Bertone Nat(10)nov-a1011 [the upcoming moment of truth]; Aprile et al PRL(11)-a1104 + news pw(11)apr, pt(11)may [stringent limits on WIMP properties]; Angloher et al EPJC(12)-a1109 + news bbc(11)sep [possible events]; Kavanagh & Green PRD(12)-a1207, PRL(13) [improved mass estimates]; news sn(16)oct [still no evidence]; Arcadi et al a1703 [rev]; > s.a. IceCube Detector.
@ Milky Way and Local Group: Lopez-Corredoira et al A&A(99)ap [high-velocity clouds]; Merrifield ASP-ap/03 [halo].
@ And galaxy structure: D'Onghia & Lake ApJ(04)ap/03; Combes IAU-ap/03 [Λ-CDM]; Weinberg et al PNAS(15)-a1306-proc [small scale controversies].
@ MACHOs and MCOs: Schunck & Mielke CQG(03) [boson stars]; Oppenheimer et al Sci(01)ap, Sci-ap/01 [white dwarves]; Evans & Belokurov ap/04-conf [end of MACHO theory]; Metcalf & Silk PRL(07)ap/06 + pw(07)feb [constraints]; Zackrisson & Flynn ApJ(08)-a0809 [subdwarf stars]; Frampton JCAP(09), a1003-conf [black holes]; Novati JPCS(12)-a1201 [microlensing search]; Griest et al PRL(13), news ns(14)feb, Belotsky et al MPLA(14)-a1410 [small black holes]; Hawkins A&A(15)-a1503 [new look at microlensing limits]; > s.a. black-hole types.
@ Other types: Soberman & Dubin ap/01 [meteoroid-like]; Ma & Bertschinger ApJ(04)ap/03 [kinetic theory of halos]; Ellis JPCS(06)ap/05 [study with "little bangs"]; Froggatt & Nielsen PRL(05) + pw(05)dec, ap/05-conf [balls of different phase]; Bell et al A&A(06)ap [molecular]; de Vega & Sánchez MNRAS(10)-a0901 [evidence for keV-scale particles]; Rahaman et al PLB(10) [perfect fluid]; Nozzoli APP(11)-a1103 [high-mass particles]; Hooper a1201 [10-GeV particles]; Jacobs et al MNRAS(15)-a1410 [macro dark matter]; Hochberg et al PRL(14) [Strongly Interacting Massive Particles]; Hoeneisen a1502 ["back-of-the-envelope" calculations]; Chakraborty & SenGupta EPJC(16)-a1511 [radions]; Babichev et al JCAP(16)-a1607 [heavy spin-2 particle]; > s.a. QCD effects [quark nuggets].


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