* History of the concept: The oldest known concepts of time are cyclic; Only with the Zoroastrian Persians, and Abraham's idea of a universal God (between 2100 and 1500 BC?) and later Judaism, was there a deity intimately related to the fate of one's children, and the idea of a future; This introduced in the Judaeo-Christian tradition and Western thought the philosophical view of a linear, irreversible time; Aymara of the Andean highlands view the past as in front of us (see can see it), and the future as behind us.
* Re absolute time: In classical physics, with special relativity time and time translation invariance have lost their independent identity from the rest of spacetime coordinate transformations (Einstein: time is an illusion), but not so in common sense and in quantum mechanics; It has been claimed that the contradiction can be solved by the path-integral approach.
* Possible positions: Presentism, possibilism, eternalism or block universe (and its variant evolving/growing block universe).
* Block universe: The view that considers spacetime as a timelessly existing four-dimensional world, as opposed to an evolving three-dimensional space.
* Evolving block universe: (Ellis) Spacetime is a four-dimensional block and not an evolving space, but while the past is real and can have had an effect on us today, the future does not yet exist; At the leading edge of spacetime decoherence turns the uncertainty of the future into the certainty of the past.
@ General: Flood & Lockwood ed-86; Griffin ed-86; Costa de Beauregard 87; Levich ed-95, ed-96; Rovelli NCB(95); Svozil in(96)-a0904 [and intrinsic observers]; Parr 97; Butterfield ed-99; Foschini qp/99; Tuisku et al PRS(09) [and thermodynamics, flow of energy]; Callender SA(10)jun; Balasubramanian FP(13)-a1107 [what we don't understand]; Smolin 13; Lachièze-Rey SHPMP-a1312 [no general concept of relativistic time]; Ashtekar SHPMP(15)-a1312 [in fundamental physics]; Kulikov InDeCS(15)-a1407 [nature of time]; Tavakol & Anderson a1506 [arguments against the non-existence of time]; Anderson a1906 [the problem of time]; Gisin nPhys(20)-a2002 [physics based on intuitionist mathematics, built on time-evolving processes]; Foti et al a2006 [there is only one time].
@ Collections: Feld ed-NYAS(67)#138 [*]; Baert ed-00; Buccheri et al ed-03, ed-03.
@ Books, I: Gold ed-67; Landsberg 82; Fraser 87; Coveney & Highfield 90; Fraser ed-90; Friedman 90; Lockwood 05 [and time travel]; 't Hooft & Vandoren 14 [scales]; Muller 16; McCarthy & Seidelmann 18; Rovelli 18.
@ History: Whitrow 89; Szamosi HS(90) [Newtonian]; Borst 93 [Middle Ages]; Novikov 98; Narayan a0708 [Indian cosmology, cycles].
@ Philosophical / conceptual: Whitrow 81; Horwich 87; Smith 93 [and language]; Smith & Oaklander 95 [metaphysics]; Caticha AIP(01)mp/00; Weiskopf BJPS(04) [and cognition]; Oaklander 04 [ontology]; Lobo in(08)-a0710; Callender 11; Evans a1011; Roemer a1202-conf [inner vs outer time]; Romero a1205-conf [nature of the present]; Smolin a1310 [temporal naturalism]; García Sucre a1404 [rev]; Radovan a1405, a1509; Butterfield EJAP-a1406 [re Dummett's writings about time]; Anderson a1409 [facets]; Huggett NYAS(14)-a1508 [physics of passage]; Simeonov PBMB(15)-a1505 [reflections]; Kulikov a1612 [and modern philosophy of physics]; Unnikrishnan a2001 [Bergson's philosophy of duration and simultaneity and Einstein's 1922 visit to Paris]; Rovelli a2105.
> Related topics: see arrow of time; causality; Evolution; time in physical theories.
> Online resources: see International Society for the Study of Time; FQXi essay contest.
Different Views / Aspects
* Eternalism: The view that all times are equally real.
@ Being vs becoming: Savitt in(01); Markosian in(02); Davies SA(02)sep [flow]; Greene NYT(03); Le Poidevin in(04) [perception]; Hartle AJP(05)feb-gq/04 [emergence of past, present and future]; Ellis GRG(06)gq, a0812-essay [block universe vs evolution]; Miller qp/06-conf [quantum mechanics as a consistency condition]; Christian in(07)gq/06 [new generalized theory]; Maxwell in(07); Peacock in(07); Sorkin gq/07-ch [causal set sequential growth models as examples]; Romero FS-a1106 [Parmenidean conception of the universe]; Ellis & Goswami a1208-ch; Gisin a1602-conf [time really passes].
@ Presentism, possibilism and eternalism: Petkov in(07) [argument for block universe view]; Besnard a1104; Bacelar a1302-wd [and the relativity of simultaneity]; Romero FS-a1403 [presentism is in conflict with relativistic cosmology and advances in neurosciences]; Stoica a1903-conf [retrocausal block universe]; Rovelli FP(19)-a1910 [reality has a more complex temporal structure]; Le Bihan EJPS(20)-a2005 [and quantum gravity]; Slavov FP-a2009 [and the concept of 'now']; > s.a. Presentism.
@ Evolving block universe: Ellis NYAS(14)-a1408 [and time at different scales]; Merali disc(15)jun [on Ellis' ideas]; Aerts a1511 [time and space as creations rather than discoveries and underlying non-temporal, non-spatial reality]; Vaccaro a1804 [and human experience]; Correia & Rosenkranz 18.
@ Relationalist view: Barbour 99; Barbour a0903-FQXi; Rovelli FP(11)-a0903-FQXi; Girelli et al a0903-FQXi [emergence model]; Anderson a1501 [Temporal Relationalism incorporating Principles of Dynamics]; Moreva et al JPCS(15)-a1502 [experiment with polarization entangled photons]; > s.a. parametrized theories.
@ Emergence of time: Briggs PRA(15)-a1503 [in classical and quantum mechanics]; Longo a1910 [in a non-commutative space]; Fujimoto a2001 [in algebraic quantum field theory]; Dias a2007 [from quantum events].
@ The future: Harrington SHPMP(08) [point-present theories]; Torretti FP(11) [links between past and future]; Morita a2101 [the future cannot be open].
@ Possibilities: Tokuo IJTP(09) [time intervals as basic objects, and orthologic]; Boyarsky & Góra IJTP(09) [based on a particle's interaction with the Higgs field]; Musser SA(10)sep [the end of time?]; Anderson a1209; Gryb & Mercati in(15)-a1301-FQXi [flow of time and the measurement process]; Dolce EPJW(13)-a1306 [elementary cycles of time]; Dowker NYAS(14)-a1405 [birth of spacetime atoms]; Sels & Wouters a1501 [time and thermodynamics]; Coumbe PRD(15)-a1502 [scaling of time and imaginary time at small scales].
@ Related topics: McKenzie a1603 [argument for the block universe?].
> Related topics: see Advanced Time; clocks [measurement and timekeeping]; measurements in quantum theory; Simultaneity.
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page on Eternalism.
– journals – comments
– other sites – acknowledgements
send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 3 may 2021