Torsion Phenomenology  

In General > s.a. torsion.
* Particle motion: Notice that, in a manifold with torsion, geodesics as extremal lines do not coincide with autoparallels; There is a debate as to which notion of geodesics (extremal or autoparallel) is the appropriate one for test-particle geodesics in the presence of torsion.
* Idea: It has been argued by Mao et al (2007) that the rotating quartz balls in the gyroscopes of the Gravity Probe B experiment should "feel" torsion, and by March et al (2011) that the precession of the Moon and Mercury (and later the Lageos satellite) should be sensitive to torsion, but others disagree; The question whether there is torsion in the physical world is not settled.
* Bounds: The axial torsion K ≤ 1.5 × 10–15 m–1 [@ Lämmerzahl PLA(97)gq].
@ Particle description and motion: Kleinert & Pelster GRG(99)gq/96; Kleinert GRG(00)gq/98, GRG(00)gq/98; Shapiro ht/98-ch, PRP(02)ht/01 [rev]; Sivaram & Garcia de Andrade gq/01; Aprea et al IJMPD(03)gq/04; Arcos et al IJMPD(04)gq; Prasanna & Mohanty GRG(09) [photon propagation]; Fabbri & Vignolo IJTP(12)-a1201; Puetzfeld & Obukhov IJMPD(14)-a1405-GRF [extended test bodies]; > s.a. classical particles; higher-spin fields; spinning particles.
@ Other high-energy physics effects: Alimohammadi & Shariati MPLA(99), Adak et al CQG(01)gq [neutrino oscillations], PRD(04)gq/03 [and non-metricity]; Abel & Owen NPB(03) [CP violation, CKM matrix]; Khriplovich & Pomeransky PRD(06)ht/05 [spinning particles, Immirzi parameter]; Fabbri MPLA(12)-a1208 [lepton interactions].
@ Topological defects: Letelier CQG(95)gq; Garcia de Andrade MPLA(97), JMP(98)gq/98, gq/98 [domain walls], gq/99/PRD; Anandan gq/99-proc; > s.a. Defects [torsional monopoles].
> Related topics: CPT symmetry; Faraday's Law.
blue bullet Specific theories: see dirac fields in curved spacetime; field theories; schwarzschild spacetime; torsion in physical theories.

In Gravitational Physics > s.a. gravitational thermodynamics.
@ General references: de Andrade et al PoS-gq/04 [coupling, and Dirac spinor]; Aros & Contreras PRD(06)gq [black holes]; Chen a0705/GRG; Das et al PRD(14)-a1410; Bonder IJMPD(16)-a1604 [vanishing-torsion hypothesis, and tests].
@ Solar system constraints: Mao et al PRD(07)gq/06, Flanagan & Rosenthal PRD(07)-a0704 [PPN-like formalism, and Gravity Probe B]; March et al PRD(11)-a1101 [Einstein-Cartan theory, the Moon and Mercury], GRG(11)-a1101 [and LAGEOS]; Iorio & Saridakis MNRAS(12)-a1203; Hehl et al PLA(13)-a1306 [and Gravity Probe B]; Iorio et al JCAP(15)-a1505 [f(T) gravity, weak-field approximation]; Farrugia et al PRD(16)-a1605; Lin et al a1610 [f(T) models with non-minimal torsion-matter coupling].
@ Astrophysical systems: Deliduman & Yapiskan a1103 [neutron stars]; Böhmer et al CQG(11); Kpadonou et al ASS(16)-a1509 [f(T) gravity, Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations]; Banerjee et al a1712 [quasars].
@ Cosmology: Camera et al PRD(14)-a1311 [galaxy clustering and cosmic shear]; Vignolo et al PRD(15)-a1412 [with non-minimally coupled fermions]; Nunes et al JCAP(16)-a1606 [constraints from cosmic chronometers]; Finch & Levi Said a1806 [galactic rotation curves]; Paul & SenGupta a1807 [dynamical suppression].
@ Torsion waves: Hammond GRG(97); Babourova et al CQG(99)gq/98; King & Vassiliev CQG(01)gq/00 [and neutrinos].
@ Gravitational-wave detectors: Garcia de Andrade gq/01; Nayeh et al a1511 [and breaking of parallelograms].
@ Experimental evidence: Zhang et al GRG(92); Lämmerzahl PLA(97)gq [Hughes-Drever experiment]; Pereira a0704-conf [possible interpretations]; Kostelecký et al PRL(08)-a0712 [bounds from searches of Lorentz violation with fermions]; Russell a0803-conf [similarities with Lorentz violation]; Pützfeld & Obukhov PLA(08)-a0708 [equation of motion and geometry probes]; Maluf et al PRD(09)-a0903 [and Pound-Rebka experiment]; Ni RPP(10) [searches, rev]; Pützfeld & Obukhov PRD(13)-a1308 [equation of motion and tests]; Ruggiero IJMPD(16)-a1601 [and light bending]; Nunes et al EPJC(17)-a1608 [constraints from varying fundamental constants]; > s.a. tests of general relativity [precession].
blue bullet Specific systems: see 3D black holes; cosmology; gravitational waves; wormholes.
blue bullet Specific theories: see brans-dicke theory.

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