Emergence |

**Emergent Systems / Theories in General**

* __History__: The
earliest representatives of emergent theories were Plato, Aristotle
(anti-atomistic, but not a process philosophy); In the 20th century, G H
Mead, H Bergson, A N Whitehead, J Margolis, P Teilhard de Chardin.

* __Idea, I__: Emergent
properties of complex physical systems are those that cannot be understood
solely in terms of the laws governing their microscopic constituents,
i.e., taking a reductionist approach.

* __Idea, II__: In
determining the macroscopic or classical properties of a system, the
process by which an effective description appears from a more fundamental
system is more fundamental than the substance of the fundamental system
itself.

@ __General references__: Rossberg phy/05
[general formalism]; Juarrero & Rubino ed-10
[complexity and self-organization, essays]; Carroll 10;
Butterfield FP(11)-a1106,
FP(11)-a1106
[and reduction and supervenience]; Batterman FP(11)
[renormalization group and symmetry breaking]; Morrison PhSc(12)
[ontological and dynamical aspects]; Hu JPCS(12)-a1204
[key issues, including coarse-graining and persistent structures]; Moon & LaRock a1705 [and symmetry breaking].

@ __Matter description__: Batterman PhSc(06)dec
[hydrodynamics
vs molecular dynamics]; Blundell a1604
[condensed matter physics].

> __Related topics__:
see Coarse-Graining; complexity;
Multiscale Physics; paradigms
in
physics; symmetries in physics.

**In Spacetime and Gravity Theories**

@ __Spacetime as emergent__: García-Sucre IJTP(79)
[from "preparticles" and set theory]; Hu IJTP(05)gq,
gq/06-talk
[condensate]; Pirogov gq/05-conf,
gq/05-conf;
Seiberg ht/06-conf;
Dreyer in(08)gq/06
[internal relativity]; Weinfurtner PhD(07)-a0711
[motivated by analog gravity]; Visser a0712-conf
["rainbow geometry", pedagogical examples]; Weinfurtner et al PoS-a0804;
Volovik PTRS(08)-a0801
[Fermi-point scenario]; Yang IJMPA(08)-a0803
[and the cosmological constant]; de Mello Koch & Murugan a0911-proc
[*N* = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory and AdS/cft correspondence]; Ojima
a1102-conf
[condensation of microscopic quanta]; Finster et al in(12)-a1102
[fermions and discrete spacetime]; Bertolami a1303-conf;
Lam & Esfeld SHPMP(13);
Lam & Esfeld SHPMP(13);
Bain SHPHP(13);
Nielsen & Kleppe a1403-proc
[space as emergent from a random mathematical structure]; Baumgarten a1409
[from ontology of time]; Crowther a1410-PhD, 16 [and quantum gravity, review]; & Samuel Fletcher [causal sets]; > s.a. approaches
to quantum gravity [group field theory] and spacetime
geometry in quantum gravity; lorentzian
geometry; spacetime models.

@ __Emergent spacetime, conceptual__: Boi Syn(04)
[conceptual overview]; Huggett & Wüthrich SHPMP(13)-a1206
[and empirical (in)coherence]; Oriti a1302/SHMP
[general issues and models]; Singh a1707-FQXi; Majid a1711-conf; Linnemann & Visser a1711 [arguments in favor of the hypothesis].

@ __Emergent spacetime, examples__: Smolyaninov & Smolyaninova a1504-in
[effective 3D Minkowski spacetime from cobalt nanoparticle-based
ferrofluid]; Ambjørn & Watabiki PLB(15)-a1505
[string field theory of 2D causal dynamical triangulations].

@ __Quantum theory without spacetime__: Raasakka Sigma(17)-a1605;
Banerjee et al a1605-GRF
[non-commutative geometry and spacetime geometry from stochastic
fluctuations]; > s.a. interpretations
of quantum theory [transactional].

@ __Space(time) from entanglement__: Van Raamsdonk a0907,
GRG(10)-a1005-GRF
= IJMPD(10)
+ news sn(15)oct;
Balasubramanian
et al JHEP(15)-a1406
[entwinement]; Lin et al PRL(15)
+ news gogo(15)may;
Cao et al PRD(17)-a1606
[space from the entanglement structure of an abstract quantum state];
Nomura et al PLB(16)-a1607
[in holographic theories]; Noorbala a1609 [time]; Nomura et al a1711 [maximally entangled states have no reconstructible spacetime]; > s.a. entanglement in quantum
field theory.

> __And cosmology__:
see cosmological models
[emergent universe]; cosmological
expansion; friedmann equation.

> __Related topics__:
see causality; emergent-gravity
theories; entropic gravity; lorentz
symmetry; special relativity; time.

> __Specific theories__:
see Einstein-Æther Theories; Matrix
Models.

**In Quantum Theory** > s.a. origin
of quantum mechanics; supersymmetry;
time in quantum theory.

@ __References__: Kronz & Tiehen PhSc(02)jun;
Elze PLA(03)gq,
in(06)gq/03,
LNP(03)gq,
PhyA(04)gq/03;
't Hooft AIP(07)-a0707;
Exirifard a0811
[in flat spacetime]; Elze IJQI(09)-a0806-conf;
issue JPCS(12)#361;
Aerts
& D'Hooghe in(11)-a1212
[potentiality states]; Pascasio et al JPCS(16)-a1602
[without wave functions]; Walleczek & Grössing JPCS(16)-a1603
[non-locality, self-organization, complexity]; > s.a. Trace
Dynamics.

**Emergent Matter** > s.a. bose-einstein
condensates; gauge theories [emergent
symmetry and gauge bosons]; ising model; particle
models.

@ __General references__: Coleman a1702 [condensed-matter perspective].

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