Emergence |

**Emergent Systems / Theories in General**

* __History__: The
earliest representatives of emergent theories were Plato, Aristotle
(anti-atomistic, but not a process philosophy); In the 20th century,
G H Mead, H Bergson, A N Whitehead, J Margolis, P Teilhard de Chardin.

* __Idea, I__: Emergent
properties of complex physical systems are those that cannot be understood
solely in terms of the laws governing their microscopic constituents,
i.e., taking a reductionist approach.

* __Idea, II__: In
determining the macroscopic or classical properties of a system, the
process by which an effective description appears from a more fundamental
system is more fundamental than the substance of the fundamental system itself.

@ __General references__: Rossberg phy/05 [general formalism];
Juarrero & Rubino ed-10 [complexity and self-organization, essays];
Carroll 10;
Butterfield FP(11)-a1106,
FP(11)-a1106 [and reduction and supervenience];
Batterman FP(11) [renormalization group and symmetry breaking];
Morrison PhSc(12) [ontological and dynamical aspects];
Hu JPCS(12)-a1204 [key issues, including coarse-graining and persistent structures];
Moon & LaRock a1705 [and symmetry breaking].

@ __Matter description__: Batterman PhSc(06)dec [hydrodynamics vs molecular dynamics];
Blundell a1604 [condensed matter physics].

> __Related topics__:
see Coarse-Graining; complexity;
duality; Multiscale Physics;
paradigms in physics; symmetries in physics.

**In Spacetime and Gravity Theories**

@ __Spacetime as emergent__: García-Sucre IJTP(79) [from "preparticles" and set theory];
Hu IJTP(05)gq,
gq/06-talk [condensate];
Pirogov gq/05-conf,
gq/05-conf;
Seiberg ht/06-conf;
Dreyer in(08)gq/06 [internal relativity];
Weinfurtner PhD(07)-a0711 [motivated by analog gravity];
Visser a0712-conf ["rainbow geometry", pedagogical examples];
Weinfurtner et al PoS-a0804;
Volovik PTRS(08)-a0801 [Fermi-point scenario];
Yang IJMPA(08)-a0803 [and the cosmological constant];
de Mello Koch & Murugan a0911-proc [*N* = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory and AdS/cft correspondence];
Ojima a1102-conf [condensation of microscopic quanta];
Finster et al in(12)-a1102 [fermions and discrete spacetime];
Bertolami a1303-conf;
Lam & Esfeld SHPMP(13);
Lam & Esfeld SHPMP(13);
Bain SHPHP(13);
Nielsen & Kleppe a1403-proc
[space as emergent from a random mathematical structure];
Baumgarten in(17)-a1409 [from ontology of time];
Crowther a1410-PhD,
16 [and quantum gravity, review];
> s.a. approaches to quantum gravity [group field theory]
and spacetime geometry in quantum gravity; lorentzian
geometry; spacetime models.

@ __Emergent spacetime, conceptual__: Boi Syn(04) [conceptual overview];
Huggett & Wüthrich SHPMP(13)-a1206 [and empirical (in)coherence];
Oriti a1302/SHMP [general issues and models];
Singh ZfN-a1707-FQXi
[from dynamical wave function collapse of macroscopic objects];
Majid a1711-conf;
Linnemann & Visser a1711 [arguments in favor of the hypothesis];
Tilloy a1802
[spacetime as fundamental and not emergent];
Oriti a1807;
> s.a. wave function collapse.

@ __Emergent spacetime, examples__: Smolyaninov & Smolyaninova a1504-in [effective 3D Minkowski spacetime
from cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid];
Ambjørn & Watabiki PLB(15)-a1505 [string field theory of 2D causal dynamical triangulations];
Lam & Wüthrich a1803,
Wüthrich a1804-en
[causal sets and loop quantum gravity, spacetime functionalism];
Leckey a1807-PhD [prespace];
& Samuel Fletcher [causal sets].

@ __Quantum theory without spacetime__:
Raasakka Sigma(17)-a1605;
Banerjee et al IJMPD(16)-a1605-GRF
[non-commutative geometry and spacetime geometry from stochastic fluctuations];
> s.a. interpretations of quantum theory [transactional].

@ __Space(time) from entanglement__: Van Raamsdonk a0907,
GRG(10)-a1005-GRF = IJMPD(10)
+ news sn(15)oct;
Balasubramanian et al JHEP(15)-a1406 [entwinement];
Lin et al PRL(15)
+ news gogo(15)may;
Cao et al PRD(17)-a1606
[space from the entanglement structure of an abstract quantum state];
Nomura et al PLB(16)-a1607 [in holographic theories];
Noorbala a1609 [time];
Diamantini & Trugenberger NJP(17)-a1710 [topological network entanglement];
Nomura et al a1711 [maximally entangled states have no reconstructible spacetime];
Hubeny & Rota a1804-GRF [micro-equilibration, thermalization of entanglement];
> s.a. entanglement in quantum field theory.

> __And cosmology__:
see cosmological models [emergent universe];
cosmological expansion; friedmann equation.

> __Related topics__:
see causality; emergent-gravity theories;
entropic gravity; lorentz symmetry;
special relativity; time.

> __Specific theories__:
see dynamical wave function collapse;
Einstein-Æther Theories; Matrix Models.

**In Quantum Theory** > s.a. origin of quantum mechanics;
supersymmetry; time in quantum theory.

@ __References__: Kronz & Tiehen PhSc(02)jun;
Elze PLA(03)gq,
in(06)gq/03,
LNP(03)gq,
PhyA(04)gq/03;
't Hooft AIP(07)-a0707;
Exirifard a0811 [in flat spacetime];
Elze IJQI(09)-a0806-conf;
issue JPCS(12)#361;
Aerts & D'Hooghe in(11)-a1212 [potentiality states];
Pascasio et al JPCS(16)-a1602 [without wave functions];
Walleczek & Grössing JPCS(16)-a1603 [non-locality, self-organization, complexity];
> s.a. Trace Dynamics.

**Emergent Matter** > s.a. bose-einstein condensates;
gauge theories [emergent symmetry and gauge bosons]; ising model;
particle models.

@ __General references__: Coleman a1702 [condensed-matter perspective].

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