Types of Interpretations
of Quantum Theory |

**Realist Interpretations** > s.a. interpretations / hidden-variable theories; pilot-wave interpretation.

* __Transactional__: A realistic,
non-local interpretation proposed by Cramer in 1986, which posits retrocausal influences in quantum processes as an attempt to alleviate some of the interpretational difficulties of the Copenhagen interpretation; Its key feature is that the process of absorption of a quantum state is just as important as the process of emission of a quantum state, which is consistent with relativistic quantum theory but it comes with the feature that the absorption (or destruction) process involves quantum states with negative energy; For this reason, TI has generally been neglected by the mainstream physics community; Maudlin (2002) has objected to any retrocausal model of quantum mechanics; In TI, the collapse of the wave function is a transaction, which involves an "offer" from the emitter and a "confirmation" from the absorber; In possibilist TI, it is the transactional processes that creates spacetime events.

@ __Transactional__: Cramer RMP(86), IJTP(88);
Garrett FP(90);
Chiatti FP(95);
Kastner Syn(06)qp/04 [avoiding
the inconsistency charge]; Marchildon PE-qp/06;
Kastner SHPMP(08)
[counterfactuals and weak values]; Kastner SHPMP(10)-a0906 [quantum
liar experiment]; Kastner & Cramer a1001 [and
Everett interpretation]; Evans a1011 [and Maudlin's critique of retrocausation]; Kastner 12 [r CP(13)]; Kastner FP(12)-a1204 [relativistic]; Boisvert & Marchildon FP(13)-a1207 [absorbers]; Kastner SHPMP-a1403 [refutation of Maudlin's challenge]; Cramer a1503-ch [and quantum non-locality]; Kastner 15, npr(15)sep; Kastner PhilC-a1608 [overview]; Kastner a1610-in, a1709 [relativistic]; Kastner & Cramer a1711 [and the absorption process]; Marchildon a1712 [relativistic, critique]; Kastner a1712 [reply to Marchildon]; > s.a. Hardy's
Experiment; measurement and time
in quantum mechanics.

@ __Pondicherry__: Mohrhoff AJP(00)aug-qp/99;
Marchildon FP(04)qp/03;
Mohrhoff FP(04)qp/03, Pra(05)qp/04;
Shafiee et al SHPMP(06)
[critique], reply Mohrhoff qp/06.

@ __Hydrodynamical__: Tsekov AUS(12)-a0904 [Madelung
quantum hydrodynamics, vs pilot-wave theory]; Karimäki a1206 [fluid of virtual particles]; > s.a. formalisms.

@ __Contextual / non-local__: Wiener & Siegel PR(53);
Gudder JMP(70);
Vujicic et al JPA(94);
Sant'Anna qp/98.

@ __Information-based__: Palge & Konrad SHPMP(08)
[Bayesian approach]; Khrennikov FP(16)-a1512 [on the Zeilinger-Brukner interpretation].

@ __Local__: Jongejan qp/00 [curved
spacetime as hidden variable]; Kent in(02)qp [probabilistic];
Lan IJTP(08)qp/03, JRLR(05)qp/03, JRLR(07)-a0810; Suarez FP(08)
[re Leggett models]; Flores a1010 [pointlike particles and necessity of vacuum fields].

@ __Relational [no absolute state]__: Rovelli; Laudisa FPL(01)qp/00 [EPR
and special relativity].

@ __Other interpretations__: Jabs BJPS(92)-a1212 [in terms of epistemological realism]; Khrennikov in(02)qp,
Fuchs qp/02,
Khrennikov qp/04, a1210-proc [Växjö];
Hájíček & Tolar FP(09)-a0806, APS(10)-a1008; Schmelzer FP(11) [pure interpretations are not viable], in-a1103 [paleoclassical interpretation]; Santos FS(14)-a1203; Hájíček JPCS(13)-a1212; Waegell a1604 [locally causal, deterministic interpretations]; > s.a. Beables.

**Other Interpretations** > s.a. quantum cosmology; quantum information;
many-worlds; multiverse cosmology.

* __Type-I__: (*ψ*-Ontic Theories) Quantum probabilities are determined by intrinsic properties of the world.

* __Type-II__: (*ψ*-Epistemic Theories) Quantum probabilities deal with relational experiences between an observer and the world.

* __Interactive__: Intermediate
between the København and hidden variables interpretations; Holistic;
Observation does not have a preferred role.

* __Stochastic__: The quantum behavior is a consequence of an unspecified
stochastic process affecting the system.

* __Montevideo interpretation__: The
quantum-to-classical transition is achieved via a phenomenon called "undecidability" which
stems from environmental decoherence, supplemented with a fundamental mechanism
of loss of coherence due to gravity; > see also montevideointerpretation.org.

@ __General references__: Cabello et al PRA(16)-a1509 [thermodynamic cost of type-I, *ψ*-ontic theories]; Hájíček a1509-book [Realism-Completeness-Universality interpretation]; Healey FP(16)-a1601 [quantum states as informational bridges]; Prunkl & Timpson a1706 [refuting the Cabello et al claim].

@ __Stochastic__: Fényes ZP(52); Bohm & Vigier PR(54);
de la Peña-Auerbach & García-Colín JMP(68),
JMP(68); Ghirardi et al RNC(78)
[rev]; Cufaro Petroni et al LNC(81)
[causality]; Nelson 85; Smolin in(86); Bohm & Hiley PRP(89);
Cufaro Petroni PLA(89)
[and quantum interference], PLA(91); > s.a. fluctuations; stochastic
quantization.

@ __Co-event interpretation__: Ghazi-Tabatabai & Wallden JPA(09)-a0901 [dynamics
and prediction]; > s.a. measures [quantum measures].

@ __Montevideo
interpretation__:
Gambini & Pullin JPCS(09)-a0905;
Gambini et al SHPMP(11)-a1002; Gambini
et al JPCS(11)-a1010; Butterfield SHPMP(14)-a1406 [assessment]; Gambini & Pullin a1502 [short review]; Gambini et al FoC(15)-a1502.

@ __Conceptuality interpretation__:
Aerts FS(09)-a1004, IJTP(10)-a1004 [particles
as conceptual entities]; Aerts et al a1711.

@ __Other__: Stapp PRD(71)
[S-matrix]; Kochen in(85), pr(88),
Peres AJP(84)jul
[a state vector is just a preparation]; Lahti IJTP(90)
[witnessing]; Healey 89 [interactive]; Lockwood BJPS(96)
["many minds"]; Ruebenacker qp/02-wd
[Amherst]; Carter IJTP(04)ht
[anthropic]; Mweene qp/04 [Landé's
interpretation]; Kent FP(12)-a0708 [real
world interpretation]; Jansson a0801;
Bächtold FP(08)
[pragmatist approach]; Fields a1108-in [on Quantum Bayesianism]; Ishikawa a1204, a1308 [linguistic], a1511 [wave-function collapse]; Smolin a1205 [based on precedence and freedom]; Pradhan NQ-a1206 [psychophysical interpretation]; Mansouri et al a1305; 't Hooft a1405, 16 [cellular automaton interpretation]; Gantsevich a1609; > s.a. Born Rule [intuitionistic interpretation]; time
in quantum theory [real clocks and conditional
probability].

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