Cosmic Microwave Background  

In General > s.a. history of relativistic cosmology; observational cosmology; topological defects.
* Idea: A diffused radiation that that has been arund since about 380,000 years after the Big Bang, when the universe cooled down enough for nuclei and electrons to recombine, and the neutral matter became largely transparent to the thermal radiation that filled the universe.
* History: 1948, Theoretical idea discussed; 1965, Discovered by Penzias and Wilson of Bell Labs; 1989: COBE launched; 1992, Anisotropy reported by COBE with Δθ ≈ 7°; 1996, Plans for experiments down to Δθ ≈ 10'; 1999, plans for MAP and Planck orbiting detectors; 2000, Boomerang maps with 50 ≤ l ≤ 600 support inflation and flat space; 2001, Boomerang and DASI data show second and third peaks in angular distributions, WMAP launched; 2003, WMAP blows everybody away; 2006, WMAP 3-year results, and plans for Planck; 2009: Planck launched; 2013: Planck data release, anomaly recognized in fluctuations; 2014, The BICEP2 collaboration reported results on cmb polarization that could be a sign of gravitational waves, but the signal was later shown to be due to foreground dust.
* Temperature: Value T = 2.726 K, from COBE results [@ news pn(93)jan]; The spectrum looks exactly like a blackbody spectrum.
* Missions: COBE; WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, 2001-2010); Planck (launched in 2009, active until 2013).
@ Intros, reviews: Steinhardt IJMPA(95); Lasenby et al PTRS(99)ap/98 [observations]; Lawrence et al PASP(99)ap/98; Barreiro NAR(00)ap/99; Smoot AIP(99)ap [COBE]; Lineweaver ap/99-in; Dodelson IJMPA(00); Gawiser & Silk PRP(00)ap; Kosowsky ap/01-ln; Miller ap/01-proc; Page ap/02-proc; Silk AIHP(03)ap/02; Wright ap/04-ln; Scott & Smoot in PLB(04)ap; Lin & Wandelt APP(06)ap/04; Scott & Smoot ap/06-rp; Souradeep IJMPD(06)ap; Giovannini IJMPA(07)ap-ln; Silk JPA(07); Hu a0802-ln; Samtleben et al ARNPS(07)-a0803; Barreiro a0906-proc; Scott & Smoot a1005-PDG [mini-review]; Rubakov & Vlasov PAN(12)-a1008-conf; Kurki-Suonio a1012-ln [and Planck mission]; de Bernardis & Masi SPIE(12)-a1208-proc; Wands et al a1504-ln.
@ Books: Lemonick 03 [WMAP, I]; Lachièze-Rey & Gunzig 99 [I]; Naselsky et al 06 [r CQG(07)]; Giovannini 08 [primer]; Durrer 08.
@ General references: Alpher & Herman Nat(48)nov; Penzias RMP(79); Wilson RMP(79); Ehrlich AJP(92)jun; de Bernardis et al Nat(00)apr; Caldwell & Kamionkowski SA(01)jan; Cooray ap/02-proc [future]; Bock et al ap/06-rp [task force report]; Chluba & Sunyaev A&A(08)-a0707 [temperature uncertainty and ionization history]; Tristram & Ganga RPP(07)-a0708 [data analysis]; Fixsen ApJ(09)-a0911 [T]; Carlstrom et al PT(15)mar [and particle physics].
@ WMAP mission: Bennett et al SA(01)jan, ApJS(03)ap, ApJS(03)ap; Spergel et al ApJS(03)ap; Fosalba & Szapudi ApJL(04)ap; Spergel et al ApJS(07)ap/06 [3-year results]; Komatsu et al ApJS(09)-a0803 + news pw(08)mar [5-year results]; news sfn(10)oct [9-year results].
@ Planck mission: Planck Collaboration ap/06 [program]; White NAR(08)ap/06-proc; Balbi NAR(07)ap/06; Ade et al A&A(11)-a1101 [overview]; Ade et al A&A(14)-a1303 [2013 results. I]; Mandolesi et al IJMPD(13) [results]; Bouchet a1405; Planck Collaboration A&A(16)-a1502 [2015 results]; Clements CP-a1707 [intro].
@ Other missions analysis: de Oliveira-Costa et al PRD(05) [atmospheric effects]; Wilson & Stark a0810-proc [from Antarctica]; Elsner & Wandelt A&A(12)-a1205 [systematics]; Abazajian et al a1610 [next-generation CMB-S4 experiment].
@ Other opinions: Navia et al a0707 [origin in local supercluster]; Bonnet-Bidaud FP(17)-a1701; > s.a. anisotropy [galactic foreground issue].
@ Related topics: Caldwell & Stebbins PRL(08)-a0711 [Copernican principle / privileged location].

Main Related Topics > see cmb and polarization.

Other Effects and Properties > s.a. black-hole types [primordial]; quantum-gravity phenomenology; supersymmetry phenomenology.
* Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect: A spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background due to hot gas in galaxy clusters, by which the spectrum is shfted towards higher energies; The main example of cluster in which it is seen is the Coma cluster.
@ Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect: Birkinshaw PRP(99); Ma & Fry PRL(02)ap/01; Refregier & Teyssier PRD(02) [large-scale]; Carlstrom et al ARAA(02)ap; Huffenberger et al PRD(04)ap [WMAP and cosmological parameters]; Rephaeli et al RNC(06)ap/05-proc [rev]; news space(06)sep [claim of smaller effect than expected in nearby clusters]; news at(12)mar, nat(12)jun, pw(12)jul [kinematic effect observed for the first time]; Rubin & Loeb JCAP(14) [kinematic, from the diffuse gas in the Local Group].
@ And hep / quantum gravity: Kamionkowski & Kosowsky ARNPS(99)ap; Signore & Puy AIP(02)ap/01 [dark energy]; Bergström & Danielsson JHEP(02); Hogan AS(02); Kaloper et al PRD(02)ht; Brandenberger & Martin IJMPA(02)ht; Shiu & Wasserman PLB(02)ht; Elgarøy & Hannestad PRD(03); Sriramkumar & Padmanabhan PRD(05) [vs initial conditions]; Easther et al JCAP(05); Queisser et al CQG(07)gq/06; Challinor ap/06-conf; Danielsson ap/06 [possible signature at 2.2 × 10–5 MP]; Kiefer JPCS(13); Cai & Wang PLB(14)-a1404; > s.a. anisotropy; causality in quantum theory [violation]; fractals in physics [multifractal spacetime].
@ And gravitational waves: Pritchard & Kamionkowski AP(05)ap/04 [inflationary]; Zhao & Zhang PLB(09)-a0907 [detection]; > s.a. polarization.
@ And other gravitation: Noh ap/02-talk [R2 gravity]; Nagata et al PRD(04)ap/03 [scalar-tensor and dG/dt]; Boucher G&C(05)ap [∇G and equivalence principle violations]; Li & Chu PRD(06)ap, Li et al PRD(07)ap/06 [f(R)]; Serra et al PRD(09) [cmb lensing as test of gravity theory]; Wu et al PRD(10)-a1009, Wu & Chen PRD(10)-a1009 [in Brans-Dicke theory].
@ Weak lensing: Amblard et al NA(04)ap; Lewis & Challinor PRP(06); > s.a. gravitational lensing.
@ Ellipticity: Gurzadyan et al NCB(03)ap/04 [spot ellipticity], PLA(07)ap/06 [and large-scale structure].
@ Evolution: Zibin et al PRD(07)-a0706 [theory and simulation]; Noterdaeme et al A&AL(11)-a1012 [measurements].
@ Other effects: Fischler et al JHEP(03)ht [entropy and acceleration]; Jaffe et al ApJ(05)ap, comment Palle ap/05 [vorticity], Hsu & Zee MPLA(06)phy/05 ["message in the sky"]; Burles & Rappaport ApJL(06)ap [aberration]; Peacock MNRAS(07)-a0705 [anthropic predictions]; Babich et al ApJ(07)-a0705 [Kuiper Belt and inner Oort Cloud objects]; Musser SA(09)may [detailed spectrum]; Ramos et al A&A(11)-a1009 [detecting point sources]; Tscherbul & Brumer a1305-wd [temporal coherence]; Desjacques et al a1503 [cosmological recombination lines, observability].
> Other effects: see arrow of time; astronomical objects [magnetic fields]; equivalence principle; tests of general relativity.
> In other models: see bianchi models; branes; inflation; modified lorentz symmetry and phenomenology; perturbations; string phenomenology.


main pageabbreviationsjournalscommentsother sitesacknowledgements
send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 1 aug 2017