String
Theory Phenomenology |

**Particle Physics in General** > s.a. axions;
CPT symmetry;
GUTs; higher-spin fields; neutrino; yang-mills
theory.

* __Idea__: The lowest excited modes of open strings correspond to massless spin-1 particles (the photon, *W*^{ ±}, *Z* and gluons); Those of closed strings are massless spin-2 particles (the graviton).

* __Enhançon__:
A hypersurface (spherical in the initial proposal), apparently made of *D*-branes,
which arises in string theory studies of large-*N* SU(*N*)
pure gauge theories with eight supercharges.

@ __General references__: Faraggi ht/97-proc, ht/99-proc;
Quevedo NPPS(98)hp/97;
Ibáñez CQG(00)hp/99-proc;
Sudarsky et al PRD(03)
[bounds from low-energy data]; Dine PT(07)dec
[rev]; Antoniadis IJMPA(10) [rev]; Ibáñez a1204-ln [rev]; Ibáñez & Uranga 12; Faraggi a1404-conf; Kane IJMPA(15) [how to make contact with the 4D world]; Kane a1601 [string theory is testable]; Quevedo a1612-conf.

@ __And QCD__:
Aharony ht/02-ln;
Evans pw(03)may;
Mateos CQG(07)-a0709-ln;
Lüst IJMPA(10).

@ __And
gauge theory__: Polyakov NPPS(98)ht/97 [confinement],
IJMPA(99);
Ghilencea & Groot Nibbelink CQG(03)
[corrections to couplings]; Imeroni PhD(03)ht;
Sugimoto & Takahashi JHEP(04)ht [and
QED]; Caselle et al JHEP(05)hl [Nambu-Goto
string and interquark potential]; Heckman CP(10)
[F-theory GUTs and experiment].

@ __Accelerator physics__: Dudas & Mourad NPB(00)ht/99;
Antoniadis & Benakli IJMPA(00),
Antoniadis IJMPA(06)in
[also branes]; Distler et al PRL(07)hp/06 + sr(07)jan
[prediction and falsifiability in W-boson scattering]; Anchordoqui et al NPB(09); Anchordoqui et al PRD(14)-a1407 [hadron colliders].

@ __Enhançon__: Jarv & Johnson PRD(00)ht;
Johnson PRD(01)ht/00;
Astefanesei & Myers
JHEP(02)ht/01,
Dyson et al JHEP(02)ht/01 [non-spherical];
Merlatti NPB(02)ht/01 [fractional
branes].

**And Gravity** > s.a. brane world; covariant
quantum gravity and other approaches; quantum
black holes; quantum-gravity phenomenology.

* __Idea__: While the matter content of the theory is dependent on the compactification, in string theory the presence of gravity in the spectrum is universal; General relativity
is recovered in the sense of an effective interaction between strings in scattering
processes; Early suggestions were from Scherk & Schwarz &(74) and Yoneya &(74);
The first correction to the action for general relativity is a Gauss-Bonnet term; String theory yields ultraviolet finite scattering amplitudes in theories of gravity coupled to matter.

* __Questions__: Get black
holes (and black-hole evaporation); Planck-scale behavior (Are there singular
solutions? Are they generic? Singularity theorems?).

* __Problem__: Conformal ambiguity in the physical metric.

@ __Books, reviews__: Giddings hp/05-ln; Yoneya a0901-ch
[history, 1969–1974]; Blau & Theisen GRG(09) [open questions]; Elvang & Horowitz a1311-ch;
Ortín 15.

@ __General references__: Boulware & Deser PRL(85);
Sannan PRD(86);
Banks & Lykken NPB(90);
Smolin gq/96;
Branson et al PLB(97)ht/96;
Porrati LMP(99)
[and general relativity]; Green CQG(99)A;
Aharony et al
PRP(00)
[and large-*N* field theories]; Wessling & Wise PLB(01)ht;
Polyakov IJMPA(02)ht/01 [thoughts];
Siegel ht/03 [weakening
at short scales]; Horowitz NJP(05)gq/04 [spacetime];
Arkani-Hamed et al JHEP(07)ht/06 [string
landscape and quantum gravity]; Roberts ht/06 [unified
field theory]; Damour & Lilley a0802-ln;
Wadia a0809-in
[rev, semi-technical]; Deo et al G&C(09)
[quantum gravity]; Basu CQG(16) + CQG+ [one-loop gravitational interactions].

@ __Gravitational waves__: Brustein ht/96 [background];
Allen & Brustein PRD(97)gq/96 [and
LIGO]; Ungarelli & Vecchio AIP(00)gq/99;
Cartier et al NPB(01)
[string cosmology].

@
__Solutions__: Coley PRL(02)
[vanishing curvature invariants]; Petri gq/04 [holographic];
Gimon & Hořava PLB(09)-a0706 [superspinning
black holes violating the Kerr bound]; Hernández et al G&C(09) [stationary axisymmetric]; > s.a. black
holes.

@ __Supergravity__: Witten NPB(95)ht;
Aspinwall NPPS(96)ht/95;
Stelle ht/05-proc
[divergence structure]; Deo IJMPA(06)ht/05 [derivation]; Gaillard a1602-in.

> __Related topics__: see corrections
to newtonian gravity; graviton; quantum
spacetime; spacetime; schwarzschild
spacetime; uncertainty.

**Astrophysics and Other Areas** > s.a. anthropic
principle; string cosmology.

* __Landscape__: The name
refers to a plot shaped like a mountainous landscape, where altitude represents
the cosmological
constant, with its value settling on a
low point somewhere between the peaks of the landscape; But there
could be on the order of 10^{500} possible such
low points, and no obvious reason for the universe to pick the one we observe;
Seen either as a virtue (e.g., in parallel worlds scenarios) or as a sign of
inability to make predictions.

@ __General references__: Kane PT(97)feb;
Musser SA(02)oct;
Gates PT(06)jun;
editorial pw(07)sep;
Kane PT(10)nov.

@ __Astronomy / astrophysics__: Mavromatos JPCS(09)-a0903 [high-energy gamma rays].

@ __Applications to other areas__:
Borsten et al PRL(10)
+ wired(10)sep
[and four-qubit entanglement classification];
McGreevy Phy(10)
+ nat(10)oct [strange metals];
> s.a. condensed matter physics.

@ __Landscape__:
Quevedo pw(03)nov;
Bousso & Polchinski SA(04)sep;
Douglas ht/06-conf;
Schellekens phy/06 [general audience];
Conlon CP(06);
Acharya & Douglas ht/06 [finite?];
Rej a0909-FQXi [decidability, computability and complexity];
Smolin FP(13)-a1202 [historical roots and speculative scenarios];
Banks a1208.

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