Rotation |

**In General**
> s.a. examples of lie groups [rotation groups SO(*n*)].

* __In R__

*

*ξ*_{1} =
(0; 0, *z*, −*y*) ,
*ξ*_{2}
= (0; −*z*, 0, *x*) ,
*ξ*_{3}
= (0; *y*, −*x*, 0) ;

in spherical coordinates,

*ξ*_{1} =
(0; 0, sin*φ*, cot*θ* cos*φ*)
, *ξ*_{2}
= (0; 0, −cos*φ*, cot*θ* sin*φ*)
, *ξ*_{3}
= (0; 0, 0, −1) .

* __Of a world-line__: Its
meaning is well-defined, not just with respect to something – it can
be measured by a spiked sphere with springs and beads; To define it quantitatively,
introduce 3 orthogonal vectors *u*^{a},
*v*^{a} and *w*^{a}
on the world-line; The rate of change of these vectors measures the rotation;
There is no rotation iff *ξ*^{m}
∇_{m}
*u*^{a}
= *ξ*^{a}
(*u*_{m}*A*^{m}),
*ξ*^{m}
∇_{m} *v*^{a}
= *ξ*^{a}
(*v*_{m}*A*^{m}),
and *ξ*^{m}
∇_{m} *w*^{a}
= *ξ*^{a}
(*w*_{m}*A*^{m}),
where *ξ*^{a}
is the unit tangent to the world-line.

@ __General references__: Walker 90;
O'Connell in(10)-a1009 [in different physical theories].

> __Related topics__: see mach's principle
[rotation problem]; Newton's Bucket [rotations and absolute space];
Reference Frame [rotating].

**As a Dynamical Process**

* __Stationary rotations__: The
rotation of a free generic three-dimensional rigid body is stationary if
and only if it is a rotation around one of three principal axes of inertia,
assumed to be distinct (if a moment of inertia is degenerate, rotation is
stationary around any rotation axis in the corresponding eigensubspace).

* __Measurement__: The most
sensitive instruments are laser gyroscopes, and atom interferometers;
The latter have sensitivities of one-hundredth of a degree/min
[@ Lenef et al PRL(97)
+ pn(97)feb],
and potentially much less; > s.a. Gyroscope.

@ __Measurement__:
Wright et al PRL(13) [BEC-based rotation sensor];
Nolan et al PRA(16)-a1511 [spin-1 BEC in a ring trap].

@ __In general relativity__:
Malament gq/00-fs [vs intuition];
Bel gq/03
[Wilson-Wilson, Michelson-Morley experiments];
Kajari et al proc(09)-a0905;
Klioner et al IAU(09)-a1001 [relativistic aspects of the rotation of celestial objects].

@ __In astrophysics and cosmology__:
Hawking Obs(69) [of the universe];
Chaliasos ap/06 [rotation of galaxies and acceleration];
Iorio JCAP(10)-a1004 [rotation of distant masses, solar-system constraints];
> s.a. galaxies [including rotation curves];
star properties.

@ __Teaching__: Silva & Tavares AJP(07)jan [angular momentum and angular velocity].

@ __Examples__:
news PhysOrg(10)sep
[fastest-spinning macroscopic object, graphene flake at 60 Mrpm].

@ __Variations__: Lansey a0906/AJP [rotations through imaginary angles];
Izosimov JPA(12)-a1202 [stationary rotations in higher dimensions].

> __Related topics__:
see angular momentum; kinematics of special relativity;
Moment of Inertia; time [rotating clocks].

> __Rotational invariance__: see hamiltonian
dynamics; realism; spherical symmetry
/ symmetry.

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send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified 27 mar 2020