Astrophysical Tests of General Relativity  

In General > s.a. cosmological tests; phenomenology of higher-order gravity; tests of newtonian gravity.
* Strong-gravity regime: Two approaches use observations of compact objects such as binary pulsars, and detection of gravitational waves.
@ Reviews, books: Baryshev & Teerikorpi 11; Berti et al CQG(15)-a1501.
@ General references: Bennett Sci(05)feb-ap; Jain & Zhang PRD(08); Mao PhD(08)-a0808; Uzan GRG(10)-a0908 [especially weak lensing]; Daniel et al PRD(10)-a1002 [relations between different approaches]; Jain & Khoury AP(10)-a1004; Song et al PRD(11) [weak lensing and peculiar velocity measurements]; Linder PTRS(11)-a1103 [model-independent tests]; Thomas a1107-proc; Ferraro AIP(12)-a1204 [f(R) and f(T) theories]; Cabré et al JCAP(12) [screening map]; Dossett & Ishak PRD(13)-a1311 [and dark-energy perturbations]; Reverberi a1406-PhD.
@ Solar-system tests: Chakraborty & Sengupta PRD(14)-a1208; Battista et al PRD(15)-a1507 [Earth-Moon Lagrangian points]; > s.a. MOND; solar system.
@ Strong-gravity regime: Damour & Esposito-Farèse PRD(98)gq; Psaltis LRR(08), a0907-proc; Li et al PRD(12)-a1110, Sampson et al PRD(13)-a1303 [using compact binary coalescence].

Types of Astrophysical Systems > s.a. Chameleon Gravity; gravitomagnetism; massive gravity; White Dwarfs.
* Black holes: One of the main main to test general relativity (and to identify black holes) is to study their quasinormal frequency spectrum.
@ Astrometry: de Felice et al A&A(01); Vecchiato et al A&A(03)ap [microarcsec]; Sigismondi NCB(05)ap; Crosta & Vecchiato a0901/PRD; Vecchiato et al JPCS(14)-a1312.
@ Black holes: Berti BJP(13)-a1302-TX [as consistency tests for general relativity and extensions of the theory]; Suvorov & Melatos PRD(16)-a1512 [and no-hair, quasi-periodic oscillations of galactic microquasars]; Yagi & Stein CQG(16)-a1602; Ghosh et al PRD(16)-a1602; Sakstein et al a1704 [supermassive]; > s.a. black-hole hair and phenomenology.
@ Black-hole no-hair tests: Johannsen & Psaltis ApJ(10)-a1003, ApJ(10)-a1005, ASR(11)-a1008, ApJ(11)-a1010, ApJ(13)-a1202 [images of black holes]; Rodriguez et al PRD(12) [inspirals]; Johannsen PRD(14)-a1501 [X-ray probes of accretion disks]; Hoormann et al PRD(16)-a1601 [X-ray observations]; Johannsen CQG(16)-a1602 [rev]; > s.a. black-hole hair; supermassive black holes [Sgr A*].
@ Near the Milky Way galactic center: Broderick & Loeb JPCS(06)ap [imaging of Sgr A*]; Preto & Saha ApJ(09)-a0906, Angelil & Saha ASP-a1008 [stars]; Psaltis et al ApJ(13)-a1212 [effects on stars around Sgr A*, stellar winds and tidal dissipation]; Capozziello et al PRD(14)-a1408 [stars]; Johannsen et al PRL(16)-a1512 [shadow of Sgr A*]; Johannsen CQG(16)-a1512 [Sgr A*, rev]; Hees et al PRL(17)-a1705, a1705-proc [stellar orbits].
@ Other galactic systems: Iorio NA(06)gq/05 [extrasolar planet HD 209458b]; Jain & Vanderplas JCAP(11)-a1106; Ibata et al ApJ(11)-a1106 [globular cluster NGC 2419]; Casanellas et al ApJ(12)-a1109 [using the Sun]; news NRAO(13)apr [ns-wd binary]; Vikram et al JCAP(13) [dwarf galaxies]; Hellwing et al PRL(14)-a1401 [low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution]; Sakstein PRD(15)-a1511 [brown dwarf radius and minimum mass for H burning]; Desmond et al a1705 [gravitational field of the local universe].
@ Extragalactic systems: Kosowsky & Bhattacharya PRD(09)-a0907 [using galaxy-cluster velocities]; Mastache et al PRD(13)-a1212 [nearby-galaxy rotation curves]; Lüghausen et al MNRAS(13)-a1304 [polar ring galaxies]; Hellwing et al PRL(14) [galaxy velocity field]; Vikram et al a1407 [rotation curves in dwarf galaxies].
> Other specific systems: see neutron stars and pulsars \ phenomenology of gravity.

Gravitational Waves > s.a. gravitational-wave analysis [and specific modified-gravity theories].
@ General references: Will PT(99)oct; Kahya PLB(11)-a1001 [guide for tests]; Corda IJMPD(09), a1004-ch; Corda AIP(09)-a0907; Kant Mishra et al PRD(10)-a1005; Mirshekari et al a1110/PRD [Lorentz symmetry violation and speed of gravity]; Chatziioannou et al PRD(12)-a1204 [extended post-Einsteinian framework, including polarization content]; Vallisneri PRD(12); Arun & Pai IJMPD(13)-a1302; Yunes & Siemens LRR(13)-a1304 [ground-based interferometers and pulsar timing experiments]; Kent FP(13)-a1304 [and semiclassical gravity].
@ From compact binaries: Yagi & Tanaka PRD(10)-a0906 [eccentric, precessing, with LISA]; Del Pozzo et al PRD(11); Li et al JPCS(12)-a1111 [binary coalescence]; Tso & Zanolin PRD(16)-a1509 [non-spinning binaries]; Calabrese et al CQG(16)-a1602; LIGO & Virgo PRL(16)-a1602 [GW150914].
@ Gravitational-wave background: Callister et al a1704.

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