Emergent Systems / Theories in General > s.a. realism.
* History: The earliest representatives of emergent theories were Plato, Aristotle (anti-atomistic, but not a process philosophy); In the 20th century, G H Mead, H Bergson, A N Whitehead, J Margolis, P Teilhard de Chardin.
* Idea, I: Emergent properties of complex physical systems are those that cannot be understood solely in terms of the laws governing their microscopic constituents, i.e., taking a reductionist approach.
* Idea, II: In determining the macroscopic or classical properties of a system, the process by which an effective description appears from a more fundamental system is more fundamental than the substance of the fundamental system itself.
@ General references: Rossberg phy/05 [general formalism]; Juarrero & Rubino ed-10 [complexity and self-organization, essays]; Carroll 10; Butterfield FP(11)-a1106, FP(11)-a1106 [and reduction and supervenience]; Batterman FP(11) [renormalization group and symmetry breaking]; Morrison PhSc(12) [ontological and dynamical aspects]; Hu JPCS(12)-a1204 [key issues, including coarse-graining and persistent structures]; Moon & LaRock a1705 [and symmetry breaking]; Bishop 19; De Haro EJPS(19)-a1907 [general framework]; Crowther a1912 [conceptions of emergence, and spacetime]; Ellis a2004.
@ Matter description: Batterman PhSc(06)dec [hydrodynamics vs molecular dynamics]; Blundell a1604, Drossel a1909-conf [condensed matter physics].
> Related topics: see Coarse-Graining; complexity; duality; Multiscale Physics; paradigms in physics; symmetries in physics.

In Spacetime and Gravity Theories > s.a. emergent gravity; quantum spacetime.
@ Spacetime as emergent: García-Sucre IJTP(79) [from "preparticles" and set theory]; Hu IJTP(05)gq, gq/06-talk [condensate]; Pirogov gq/05-conf, gq/05-conf; Seiberg ht/06-conf; Dreyer in(08)gq/06 [internal relativity]; Weinfurtner PhD(07)-a0711 [motivated by analog gravity]; Visser a0712-conf ["rainbow geometry", pedagogical examples]; Weinfurtner et al PoS-a0804; Volovik PTRS(08)-a0801 [Fermi-point scenario]; Yang IJMPA(08)-a0803 [and the cosmological constant]; de Mello Koch & Murugan a0911-proc [N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory and AdS/cft correspondence]; Ojima a1102-conf [condensation of microscopic quanta]; Finster et al in(12)-a1102 [fermions and discrete spacetime]; Bertolami a1303-conf; Lam & Esfeld SHPMP(13); Lam & Esfeld SHPMP(13); Bain SHPHP(13); Nielsen & Kleppe a1403-proc [space as emergent from a random mathematical structure]; Baumgarten in(17)-a1409 [from ontology of time]; Crowther a1410-PhD, 16 [and quantum gravity, review]; Huggett & Wüthrich a2101 [intro to monograph]; > s.a. approaches to quantum gravity [group field theory] and spacetime geometry in quantum gravity; lorentzian geometry; spacetime models.
@ Emergent spacetime, conceptual: Boi Syn(04) [conceptual overview]; Huggett & Wüthrich SHPMP(13)-a1206 [and empirical (in)coherence]; Oriti a1302/SHMP [general issues and models]; Singh ZfN-a1707-FQXi [from dynamical wave function collapse of macroscopic objects]; Majid PTRS(18)-a1711-conf; Linnemann & Visser SHPMP-a1711 [arguments in favor of the hypothesis]; Tilloy FP(18)-a1802 [spacetime as fundamental and not emergent]; Oriti a1807-in; > s.a. wave function collapse.
@ Emergent spacetime, examples: Smolyaninov & Smolyaninova a1504-in [effective 3D Minkowski spacetime from cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid]; Ambjørn & Watabiki PLB(15)-a1505 [string field theory of 2D causal dynamical triangulations]; Lam & Wüthrich SHPMP-a1803, Wüthrich a1804-en [causal sets and loop quantum gravity, spacetime functionalism]; Leckey a1807-PhD [prespace]; & Samuel Fletcher [causal sets]; Huggett & Wüthrich a2005-ch [causal set theory], a2005-ch [string theory].
@ Quantum theory without spacetime: Raasakka Sigma(17)-a1605; Banerjee et al IJMPD(16)-a1605-GRF [non-commutative geometry and spacetime geometry from stochastic fluctuations]; Kastner a2103 [transactional interpretation, quantum substratum]; > s.a. interpretations of quantum theory [transactional].
@ Space(time) from entanglement: Van Raamsdonk a0907, GRG(10)-a1005-GRF = IJMPD(10) + news sn(15)oct; Balasubramanian et al JHEP(15)-a1406 [entwinement]; Lin et al PRL(15) + news gogo(15)may; Cao et al PRD(17)-a1606 [space from the entanglement structure of an abstract quantum state]; Nomura et al PLB(16)-a1607 [in holographic theories]; Noorbala FdP(18)-a1609 [time]; Diamantini & Trugenberger NJP(17)-a1710 [topological network entanglement]; Nomura et al PRD(18)-a1711 [maximally entangled states have no reconstructible spacetime]; Hubeny & Rota IJMPD(19)-a1804-GRF [micro-equilibration, thermalization of entanglement]; Lee a1912 [rectangular matrix]; > s.a. entanglement in quantum field theory.
> And cosmology: see cosmological models [emergent universe]; cosmological expansion; friedmann equation.
> Related topics: see causality; graph theory in physics; entropic gravity; lorentz symmetry; special relativity; time.
> Specific theories: see dynamical wave function collapse; Einstein-Æther Theories; Matrix Models.

In Quantum Theory > s.a. origin of quantum mechanics; supersymmetry; time in quantum theory.
@ References: Kronz & Tiehen PhSc(02)jun; Elze PLA(03)gq, in(06)gq/03, LNP(03)gq, PhyA(04)gq/03; 't Hooft AIP(07)-a0707; Exirifard a0811 [in flat spacetime]; Elze IJQI(09)-a0806-conf; issue JPCS(12)#361; Aerts & D'Hooghe in(11)-a1212 [potentiality states]; Pascasio et al JPCS(16)-a1602 [without wave functions]; Walleczek & Grössing JPCS(16)-a1603 [non-locality, self-organization, complexity]; Gallego Torromé IJGMP-a2007 [non-reversible]; Skilling & Knuth a2104 [and Lorentz symmetry, from arithmetic of uncertainty]; > s.a. neural networks; Trace Dynamics.

Emergent Matter > s.a. bose-einstein condensates; gauge symmetries [emergent symmetry and gauge bosons]; ising models; particle models.
@ General references: Coleman a1702-in [condensed-matter perspective]; Pace et al a2009 [emergent QED from quantum spin ice].

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