In General > s.a. astronomy; fluids; stars; star formation and evolution [including compact objects].
* History: F Houtermans was the first to suggest that the source of stars' energy is thermonuclear fusion.
* 1997, Main issues: GRBs, flares of TeV blazars, black holes and relativistic jets, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, neutrino astronomy, extragalactic B fields, and cosmological models.
* 2001, Big questions: The NSF/DOE/NASA Committee on Physics and the Universe (CPU), chaired by M Turner, proposed 11 big questions, (1) What is dark matter? (2) What are the neutrino masses and their consequences? (3) Are there additional spacetime dimensions? (4) What is dark energy? (5) Are protons unstable? (6) How did the universe begin? (7) Did Einstein have the last word on gravity? (8) How do cosmic accelerators work? (9) Are there new states of matter at the highest densities and T's? (10) Is a new theory of matter and light needed at the highest energies? (11) How were the elements from Fe to U made?
* 2013, Main issues: Compact objects, the dark sector, plasma astrophysics (origin of jets, cosmic rays and magnetic fields) and the primordial universe.
> Online resources: Heydari-Malayeri ap/07, website, a0911 and website [etymological dictionary]; Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics website.

Astroparticle Physics / High-Energy Astrophysics > s.a. astronomy [observation]; astrophysical neutrinos; axions; cosmic rays; particle physics.
@ Books, Reviews: Katz 87; Mitter & Widder ed-89; Raffelt 96; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus & Zuber 97 [r PT(98)nov]; Jacob IJMPA(97); Khlopov 99; Bergström & Goobar 04 [r 1st ed PT(00)mar]; Magnussen hp/99-proc; Battiston ESO(03)ap/02 [from space]; Ellis NPPS(03)ap/02; Blandford ap/03-IAU; Olinto ap/03-TX21; Sigl AIP(05)hp/04, NPPS(07)ap/06; Gaisser ap/05-ln; Olive ap/05-ln; Stanev ap/05-proc; Westerhoff IJMPA(05); Giovannelli NCB(05) [open problems]; Anchordoqui a0706-ln [and cosmology]; Kolb RPP(07)-a0708 [essay]; Mavromatos a0708-ln [and collider hep]; Bettini IJMPA(07); Berezinsky JPCS(08)-a0801; Spiering AN-a0804 [status of field in Europe]; Cirkel-Bartelt LRR(08) [history]; Swanson PhD(08)-a0808; Lipari a0808-conf; Perkins 09; Ong & Covault NJP(09); Dar a0906-conf; Buchmüller PoS-a1003; a1010-ln [status]; Martins a1011-proc; Sigl a1102-in [interdisciplinary aspects]; Olinto a1202-proc [highest energies]; Rieger et al a1302-in [TeV astronomy]; Chen a1310 [recent progress]; Zhang & Meszaros FroP(13)-a1401; Krause et al PoS-a1508 [for high school students]; Gaisser et al 16.
@ Neutrinos: Balantekin & Haxton ap/99-proc [review]; Anchordoqui et al PLB(05) [as diagnostic].
@ Particle acceleration: Derishev & Piran MNRAS(16)-a1512 [and radiation, in relativistic shocks]; > s.a. Jets.
@ Experiments, observations: Chen AAPPS(03)ap, Ng ap/03-proc [lab/accelerator]; Morselli et al NPPS(13)-a1406 [missions above 10 MeV]; Zornoza NIMA(14)-a1403-proc [deep under-ground, under-water and under-ice experiments]; Wei & Wu FoP-a2102 [tests of fundamental physics].
@ Related topics: De Rújula IJMPA(05)ap/04-conf [unified "cannonball" model]; Schaffner-Bielich et al a0711-ln [role of strangeness]; Brickhouse et al a0902-rp, Savin et al RPP(12)-a1112 [laboratory astrophysics]; Horowitz JPCS(11)-a1008 [neutron-rich matter]; Louedec APP(15)-a1403 [atmospheric effects].

Other Specific Topics > s.a. astronomical objects [including clusters]; early-universe nucleosynthesis; interstellar matter.
* Nucleosynthesis: It occurred in the early universe, forming mostly H and He; Most chemical elements heavier than helium with atomic numbers up to that of iron were formed by fusion inside main-sequence stars; Rapid neutron processes in supernova winds and the neutron-rich explosions that occur when binary neutron stars merge are needed for the heaviest elements; > s.a. Kilonova.
* Buchdahl inequality: For static spherically symmetric stars, under physically reasonable conditions, the mass and radius satisfy 2M/R ≤ 8/9; A right-hand side of 1 would be the black-hole limit.
@ Nucleosynthesis: Arnett 96; news ns(10)jul [the biggest atoms]; Hjorth-Jensen Phy(11) [carbon production in stars]; Krein Phy(13) [masses of short-lived neutron-rich nuclides and cosmological abundances]; Fernández et al a1910-wp [review and recommendations]; news sn(19)dec [role of neutron star collisions].
@ Nucleosynthesis, explosive: Arnett PRP(00)ap/99-in; Maciel et al a1012-proc [in intermediate-mass stars]; Arcones JPCS(11)-a1012.
@ Nucleosynthesis, neutron-star mergers: news at(13)jul; Martin et al PoS-a1509; Frebel & Beers PT(18)jan.
@ Other nuclear astrophysics: Burbidge et al RMP(57); Arnould & Takahashi RPP(99)ap/98; Lattimer & Prakash PRP(00)ap; Brune ap/05-proc [rev]; Boyd 07 [r CP(09)]; Salpeter PASA(08)-a0711 [early history]; Schatz PT(08)nov [rare isotopes]; Iliadis AIP(10)-a0911 [intro]; Diehl LNP(10)-a1007 [cosmic radioactivity and chemical evolution]; Clayton LNP(10)-a1009 [radioactivity]; Bertulani & Kagino PPNP(16)-a1604 [rev]; > s.a. nuclear physics.
@ Buchdahl inequality: Tsuchida et al PTP(98)gq [scalar-tensor theory]; Andréasson CMP(07)gq/06 [spherical static shells]; Heinzle a0708 [sharper inequality]; Lake a1606 [static anisotropic spheres that violate the bound].
@ Charge dynamics: Meier ApJ(04)ap/03 [highly relativistic].
@ Instabilities: Pani et al PRD(10)-a1006 [superspinars]; Ramazanoğlu PRD(18)-a1710 [regularization].
@ Related topics: Lightman & Rybicki 79 [radiative processes]; Burrows & Ostriker PNAS(14)-a1401 [astronomy and fundamental physics]; > s.a. critical phenomena; phenomenology of magnetism [plasmas]; statistical methods.

References > s.a. history of astronomy; phenomenology of gravity.
@ Reviews, books: Schatzman yr(70); Falcke & Biermann ap/97-proc; Weinberg ap/01-TX20; Rao CS-a1505.
@ Books: Lang 80 [formulae]; Fang & Ruffini 83; Demiański 85; Cox ed-00 [ref; r PT(00)oct]; Padmanabhan 0001; Bhatia 02 [III]; Maoz 07; Bradt 08; Rai Choudhuri 10 [for physicists, r PT(11)jan Smoot, PRS(11) Milonni]; Carroll & Ostlie 17.
@ Books, II: Kitchin 09 [techniques]; Kisslinger 14; Ryden & Peterson 20; Owocki 21.
@ General references: Bona et al 09 [and numerical relativity]; van Putten & Levinson 12 [transient phenomena]; Anderl a1510-ch [philosophical aspects].
@ Status: Trimble et al PASP(06)ap [2005]; Trimble et al SSR(07)-a0705 [2006]; Škoda PoS-a1112 [stellar astrophysics].
@ Relativistic: Zel'dovich 71; van Putten 05 [gravitational radiation, black holes, GRBs]; Hoyng 06 [primer]; Opher BJP(13)-a1305-TX [outstanding challenges]; Foschini a1703-ln [intro]; Burger et al GRG(18)-a1704 [use of quantum field theory in astrophysics]; > s.a. black-hole phenomenology; semiclassical gravity.
@ Mathematical: Fridman & Polyachenko 84; Straumann 84.
@ Comments: Lopez-Corredoira in(08)ap/03 [research]; Zuntz et al a1003 [orthographic correlations :)].

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