Galactic or Supermassive Black Holes  

In General > s.a. black-hole types.
* Status: 2000, They seem to be very common; Most galaxies may have one, and they seem to play a dominant role in galaxy/quasar evolution, producing black tides that disrupt and rip passing stars apart and powering jets; Examples are the center of the Milky Way in Sgr, that of the M87 galaxy, and many others; 2012, Several dozen have been identified.
* Masses: 2006, The most massive ones may be around 3 × 109 or 1010 MSun, depending on the model; 2014, Their mass distribution seems to have a cutoff towards lower masses near 3 × 106 MSun, consistent with a classical formation mechanism from the agglomeration of the first massive stars in the universe.
@ General references: Rees SA(90)nov, ap/97-conf; Ferrarese ASP-ap/02, & Merritt pw(02)ap; Weaver SA(03)jul [and star formation]; Combes ap/05; Greenwood ap/05; Melia a0705-in; Miller & Reynolds PT(07)aug [effect on environment]; Jovanović & Popović FdP(08)-a0803 [effects of strong gravitational fields]; Sesana AiA(12)-a1110 [cosmic history, practical guide]; Hlavacek-Larrondo AS(13); Genzel a1410-proc [rev].
@ Masses: Natarajan & Treister MNRAS(09)-a0808 [upper limit?]; Davis et al ApJ(14)-a1405 [mass function for spiral galaxies]; King MNRAS(16)-a1511 [maximum mass from luminous accretion of gas]; Inayoshi & Haiman ApJ(16)-a1601, Bhattacharya & Shankaranarayanan IJMPD(18)-a1805-GRF [maximum mass?]; Carr et al MNRAS(21)-a2008 [constraints on stupendously large black holes, M ∼ 1010 MSun].
@ Spin: Reynolds CQG(13)-a1307 [measurement]; Garofalo ApJL(09)-a0905 [and galaxy evolution]; Barausse MNRAS(14)-a1201 [evolution]; Brenneman 13-a1309 [measurement, in AGNs]; Bonson & Gallo MNRAS(16)-a1602 [measurement].
@ Related topics: Ford et al IAU-ap/97 [HST]; Richstone AIP(98)ap; Sridhar & Touma MNRAS(99)ap/98 [motion around them]; Rees ap/99-proc; Bellovary et al ApJL(10)-a1008 [wandering black holes from satellite galaxies]; Sadeghian et al PRD(13) [and dark matter distribution].
@ Alternatives: Miller MNRAS(06)ap/05 [constraints]; Svidzinsky JCAP(07)ap/06 [oscillating axion bubbles]; Verozub NCB(08)-a0806 [stable degenerate Fermi-gas configurations].

Formation and Evolution > s.a. galaxy formation and evolution; gravitational collapse; numerical-relativity models.
* In the early universe: At high redshift the progenitors of supermassive black holes are generally considered to be supermassive primordial stars, but a large number of supermassive black holes has been observed at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 Myr old, and the proposed standard scenarios for black-hole formation (rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers) face severe difficulties in explaining such rapid formation.
@ General references: Bean & Magueijo PRD(02)gq [from primordial black holes]; Shapiro ap/03-in [simulation]; Tyler et al ap/03/ApJ [processes]; Rees & Volonteri IAU(06)ap/07; Madau IAU(06)ap/07; Begelman AIP(08)-a0709 [by direct collapse]; Bellovary et al ApJ(11)-a1104 [the first massive black holes]; Neumayer & Walcher AiA(12)-a1201 [nuclear clusters as precursors]; Begelman ApJL(12)-a1203 [accretion, matter recycling and loss]; news chandra(12)jun; > s.a. cosmic-strings phenomenology.
@ Seeds: Natarajan a1104-in; Kawasaki et al PLB(12)-a1202; Brandenberger & Jian a1908 [cosmic textures and global monopoles].
@ In the early universe: news pw(12)jan [growth]; Latif et al MNRAS(13)-a1304; Biermann et al MNRAS(14)-a1403 [cosmic backgrounds due to the formation of the first generation of supermassive black holes]; Lake & Harko FdP(17)-a1505 [from superconducting cosmic strings piercing seed black holes]; Melia & McClintock PRS(15)-a1511; Smith et al a1703-A&G [formation]; Schleicher in(19)-a1807 [observational status].
@ Evolution: Volonteri ap/06-proc; Volonteri Sci(12)aug-a1208 + news at(12)aug; Volonteri et al IAU(15)-a1511 [high-redshift].

Observation and Effects > s.a. black-hole phenomenology; matter near black holes.
* Mergers: 2007, numerical simulations show that when two galaxies merge, one of their central black holes can be ejected, with a speed and in a direction depending on their initial spins.
* Sources of radiation: Accretion disks of hot, glowing material surrounding black holes, and coronas of highly energetic particles that produce X rays.
@ And halos: de Zeeuw ASP-ap/97; Ferrarese ApJ(02)ap.
@ Binaries: Sivaram a0803 [and tests of general relativity]; Komossa et al ApJ(08)-a0804 [or recoiling]; Valtonen et al Nat(08)apr-a0809; Boroson & Lauer Nat(09)mar-a0901 [close pair]; Gair et al GRG(11)-a0907 [Einstein Telescope]; Sesana ApJ(10)-a1006 [in stellar environments, and gravitational waves]; Dotti et al AiA(12)-a1111; Bogdanović proc(14)-a1406 [observational signatures]; Sesana proc(14)-a1407 [and pulsar timing arrays]; Romero et al A&A(16)-a1602 [high-energy signatures]; > s.a. binary black holes; neutron stars [pulsar timing]; sources of gravitational radiation.
@ Binaries, mergers: Yoo et al ApJ(07)ap [galaxy cluster mergers]; González et al PRL(07), Campanelli et al PRL(07)gq + sr(07)may [recoil kicks]; Schnittman CQG(13)-a1307; Gerosa & Sesana MNRAS(15)-a1405 [missing black holes in brightest cluster galaxies as evidence for superkicks]; Komossa & Zensus IAU(15)-a1502 [and stellar tidal disruption events]; Volonteri et al a1509-proc [in merging galaxies].
@ And host galaxies: news Sci(10)apr [preventing star formation]; news pw(10)may [correlation between black-hole mass and globular-cluster number]; Feoli & Mancini IJMPD(11)-a1012 [model of relationship with host-galaxy properties]; news nyt(11)dec [biggest yet]; Gezari PT(14)may [tidal disruption of stars]; Hamers et al MNRAS(14)-a1406 [relativistic dynamics of stars]; Graham ch(16)-a1501 [galaxy bulges, rev]; news sn(19)may [in dwarf galaxies].
@ Other effects: Iorio ApJ-a1910 [what would happen to a nearby star and planet system].

Specific Types and Galaxies > s.a. matter near black holes [Mrk 335]; Blazars.
* Milky Way galaxy, Sgr A*: Its mass is estimated observing the motion of stars around it, and is about 4.27 × 106 MSun (as of 2021); More detailed observations should allow us to estimate its multipole moments and determine whether they match the values expected from the Kerr metric in general relativity.
@ Milky Way galaxy, Sgr A*: Townes & Genzel SA(90)apr; news pn(98)jan; Melia & Falcke ARAA(01)ap; Miyoshi ap/04-proc; Reid IJMPD(09)-a0808; Miyoshi et al in(07)-a0809, Broderick et al ApJ(09)-a0903, Fish & Doelemn a0906-IAU [towards detecting the horizon]; Merritt et al PRD(10)-a0911 [properties from stellar orbits]; Broderick & Loeb SA(09)dec; Van Wassenhove et al MNRAS(10)-a1001 [satellites]; Falcke et al IAU(11)-a1010 [jet, and general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics]; De Paolis et al GRG(11)-a1011 [estimating the parameters]; news uanews(12)jan [Event Horizon Telescope]; news space(12)apr [probing with pulsars]; Scharf SA(12)aug [and Earth's existence, habitability]; Vincent et al a1209-proc [parameters]; news ucla(12)oct [star with 10.5-year orbiting period]; Falcke & Markoff CQG(13)-a1311 [rev]; news sn(16)jan [middleweight, 100,000-solar-mass neighbor suspected]; Zakharov IJMPD-a1801-conf [observations and models]; news pt(18)apr [spin, from quasiperiodic oscillations].
@ Sgr A*, no-hair and other tests: Will ApJL(08)-a0711, Sadeghian & Will CQG(11)-a1106; Psaltis & Johannsen JPCS(11)-a1012 [as testbed for strong gravity effects]; Johannsen AiA(12)-a1105; Psaltis et al ApJ(16)-a1510 [using stars, pulsars, and the Event Horizon Telescope]; Goddi et al IJMPD(17)-a1606-MG14 [experiments]; > s.a. quantum-gravity phenomenology.
@ M87: news sci(12)sep [black hole rotation and first direct observation of a jet-launching region]; Broderick et al ApJ(15)-a1503 [indirect evidence for an event horizon].
@ Other examples: Cappellari Nat(11)dec-a1205 [two 10-billion-solar-mass monster black holes]; news ns(13)feb [is NGC 1277's black hole a runaway from another galaxy?]; Seth et al Nat(14)sep-a1409 + news pw(14)sep [in an ultracompact dwarf galaxy]; news dgal(16)jan [NGC 1097 has a black hole of 140M solar masses].
@ Related topics: Harun-or-Rashid PhD-ap/02 [toroidal]; Amaro-Seoane et al MNRAS(10)-a0910 [triplets].

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