History of Physics  

In General > s.a. areas of physics [including status, future]; history of physics by areas.
* Trends: In fundamental physics, questions that were metaphysical at one time become well-posed at a later time.
* Analogy: Copernicus, Kepler, Newton were like sleepwalkers, who managed to go where they wanted to without knowing how (A Koestler); Einstein even more.
@ General references: Buckley 29; Einstein & Infeld 38; Yourgrau & Breck ed-70; McCormmach ed-74; Heilbron & Wheaton 81 [refs]; Weart & Phillips ed-85; Kargon & Achinstein ed-87; Brush AJP(87)aug [RL], ed-88; Weaver 87; Park 88; Motz & Weaver 89; Wu IJMPA(89); Roche ed-90; Simonyi 12 [cultural history]; Persson a1308 [in introductory physics textbooks]; Modinos 14; Varvoglis 14; Weinberg 15; Stanley PT(16)jul [why study it]; Kragh a1702-conf [indirect value of the history of science for physicists].
@ Biographies: Porter ed-94, & Ogilvie ed-00; Daintith ed-09; Pickover 08 [and laws].
@ Special topics: Shamos 59 [great experiments]; McCoy ht/96-talk [physics vs metaphysics]; Rabinowitz JNE(01)phy [limitations]; Davies phy/02 [and astronomy]; Wilczek Nat(04)phy [examples]; Brown AJP(06)may [role of myths]; Crease pw(07)jan [role of letters for historians]; Jackson AJP(08)aug-a0708 [0th theorem of the history of physics]; Maienschein & Smith Isis(08) [value of history of science]; Weinert SHPSA(10) [role of plausibility arguments]; Lahav & Massimi A&G(14)-a1405 [paradigm shifts, the role of evidence, and the dark-energy example].

Models, Stages of Evolution
* Taketani's three stages: Phenomenological (Tycho / Franklin's & Gilbert's in electromagnetism / cross sections, branching ratios in particle physics); Substantialistic (kinematics: Kepler's laws / Faraday & Oersted / standard model); Essentialistic (dynamics, Newton's laws / Maxwell's equations / ??).
@ References: Taketani PTPS(71), Sakata PTPS(71); Bellone & Bruzzaniti RNC(92); Bacry IJTP(93).

History of Physics / Science Education
* V century BC: The trivium was composed of grammar, dialectic, and rhetoric; the quadrivium of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and harmony; "Nature" was not studied until the late XVIII century.

Early Developments > s.a. vacuum; XIX century; {#Newton}.
* First prediction: A solar eclipse in 585 BC, by Thales of Miletus (Ionia), using Babylonian astronomical tables.
* Earliest views of Nature: Forces at work in the world were thought of as generalizations of human emotions.
* Thales: The universe is composed of water, moving under forces inherent in itself – not at the whim of the Gods.
* Anaximander of Miletus: The universe is composed of a common inanimate substance from which Earth, Mist, Fire and Water are formed, in some sense moving in search of their equilibrium.
* Pythagoras' school: (Croton, Italy) Nature is governed by Mind; They had a deep mathematical sense.
* V century BC, Leucippus and Democritus: Atoms moving under the influence of laws.
* III century BC, Archimedes: The most important scientist of Antiquity, worked on buoyancy and centers of gravity in planes, among other things.
* Interlude: The naturalistic view of the universe lay dormant from the V century BC to the Renaissance (e.g., Leonardo).
* XVIII century: Physicists became fascinated with electricity; 1746, Leyden jars store charge and produce sparks; 1752, Franklin draws electricity from lightning with kites; Doctors treat patients with electric shocks; France plays prominent role in research.
@ General references: Sambursky 87 [early physics]; Greene 92 [preclassical science]; Pedersen 93; Sachs 95 [Aristotle]; Wallace pw(99)dec [before Galileo]; Al-Khalili 10 [Arabic scientists].
@ Middle Ages to XIX century: Barrañón phy/01 [Alonso de la Veracruz (1507-1584)]; Sylla PT(08)apr [Medieval dynamics, 1328 Thomas Bradwardine]; Bucciantini et al ed-07 [mechanics and cosmology]; Holder a1105 [Kepler (1571-1630), differential equations]; Manning SHPSA(12) [Descartes (1596-1650), physics]; Sparavigna IJS(13)-a1312 [Al-Biruni (973-1048)]; Shapin & Schaffer 11 [1600s, Boyle, Hobbes and experiments].

Sociology, Politics, Countries, Community of Physicists
* Physicists: Physics as a profession arose in the mid 1800s; The word 'physicist' was coined by Wheewell.
@ History of the community: Phillips AJP(89)jul.
@ Formation of physicists: issue PT(86)jun.
@ Countries: Van Vleck PT(64)jun [USA]; Low HSPBS(99) [Japan]; Morán-López PT(00)oct [Latin America]; Kak phy/03 [India]; Sánchez-Ron HSPBS(02) [Spain]; Warwick 03 [UK, Cambridge 1800s]; Hu 05 [China, and Einstein]; Baracca et al PT(06)sep [Cuba]; Narayan phy/07, phy/07 [Indian Nyaya-Vaisesika School]; Case HSNS(09) [Antebellum US South]; Longair 16 [UK, history of the Cavendish Laboratory]; Roy IJHS-a1610 [India].
@ Sociology: Rothman 89 [fashions]; Galam PhyA(04)phy-proc [sociophysics]; > s.a. astronomy; cosmology; detection of gravitational waves.
@ Special topics: Schweber PT(93)nov [restructuring]; Kirby & Czujko PT(93)dec [job market]; Appelquist & Shapero PT(01)nov [community in new century]; > s.a. XIX century; XX century; XXI century.

Individual Physicists and Personal Accounts
@ Personal accounts: Born 68, 69; Gamow 70; Heisenberg 75; Dyson 81; Casimir 83; Heisenberg 83; Feynman 85, 88; Peierls 86; Bernstein 88; Wick in(88); Lifshitz ed-89; Weisskopf 89; Bondi 90; Rossi 90; Bethe 91; Zel'dovich 92; Sagdeev 95; Weiner 08; Gell-Mann IJMPA(10); Melissinos 12; Polchinski a1708.
@ By physicists: Landau 65; Wheaton & Heilbron 82; Lightman & Brawer 90; Bernstein 93; Freund 07.
@ On physicists: Cropper 01 [from Galileo to Hawking]; Bernstein 01; James 04 [from Galileo to Yukawa, r pw(04)apr, Jones CP(05)]; Crease pw(08)jan [re Dictionary of Scientific Biography].

Online Resources > see AIP Center for History of Physics; Physics timeline.

"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."
George Santayana (in The Life of Reason, 1905)

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