Modern Cosmological Models  

In General > s.a. cosmology [general issues]; cosmological parameters; early-universe models; standard cosmological model; teaching.
* 1905 situation: There is no galaxy other than the Milky Way, in which stars are distributed with no special pattern; Then there are those funny-looking nebulae, different from star clusters or clouds of hot gas.
* 1920s: Shapley-Curtis debate [@ NASA page]; Some distant objects behave as if they are moving away fast.
* 1930 models: G Lemaître (relativistic, homogeneous, expanding, constant mass, increasing, r); E A Milne (Euclidean, homogeneous and isotropic, expanding); F Zwicky (non-expanding); Hubble favoured Lemaître.
@ General references: Dyson RMP(79) [and life]; Sandage ARAA(88); Shanks ASP-ap/04 [no dark matter or dark energy]; Barenboim & Lykken JHEP(06)ap [possibilities]; Gurzadyan & Kocharyan IJMPD(17)-a1703 [stability of cosmological models and geometry of superspace].
@ Newtonian cosmology: Oliynyk JHDE(10)-a0908 [with compact fluid bodies]; Green & Wald PRD(12)-a1111 [mapping Newtonian into general relativistic dust cosmologies]; Bertello MS-a1203 [Newtonian limit of relativistic cosmology]; Fabris & Velten a1207/RBEF [neo-Newtonian cosmology, with a more active role for pressure as a source for the gravitational field]; Flender & Schwarz PRD(12)-a1207 [Newtonian theory is wrong on scales larger than 10 Mpc]; Gibbons & Ellis CQG(14)-a1308 [using only Newtonian gravitating point particles]; Wallace a1604 [lack of a fully satisfactory formulation].
@ Parametrized post-Friedmannian framework: Tegmark PRD(02)ap/01 [and dark energy]; Hu & Sawicki PRD(07)-a0708; Daniel et al PRD(08)-a0802 [large-scale structure and gravitational slip]; Ferreira & Skordis PRD(10)-a1003 [structure formation]; Baker et al PRD(11)-a1107; Zuntz et al JCAP(12)-a1110 [ambiguous tests]; Ferreira et al GRG(14) [overview]; Milillo et al PRD(15)-a1502 [and structure formation]; Suárez et al a1804 [modified theories, dynamical systems approach].

Various Models and Related Issues > s.a. generalized theories [modified gravity].
* Models used: The standard model uses a FLRW metric, but other models use Bianchi spacetimes to model anisotropy, or inhomogeneous ones.
@ Models in general: Avelino & Martins PRD(03)ap/02 [classification]; Wanas CSF(03)gq/04 [absolute parallelism]; Vachaspati JLTP(04)cm-conf [condensed-matter experiments]; Schmidt gq/04 [topology/geometry]; Krogdahl gq/04 [flat spacetime]; Puetzfeld NAR(05)gq/04-proc [non-Riemannian, rev]; Copeland et al PRD(06)gq/05 [lqc vs braneworld]; Chiba & Takahashi PRD(07) [consistency condition for general relativity]; Harlow & Susskind a1012 [dual descriptions]; Andersson ch(14)-a1310 [conceptual principles and stability]; Albrecht PRD(15)-a1401 [the cosmos as an equilibrium system]; Bolotin et al a1506 [in terms of the deceleration parameter]; Avelino et al Symm(16)-a1607 [rev]; > s.a. FLRW models; Milne Universe; Steady-State Cosmology.
@ Model selection: Scott CJP(06) [stochasticity in parameters]; Liddle et al A&G(06)ap, Liddle MNRASL(07)ap [Bayesian]; Mukherjee & Parkinson IJMPA(08) [rev]; Trotta CP(08)-a0803 [Bayesian, rev]; Linder & Miquel IJMPD(08).
@ Variations in the standard model: Peebles AdP(12)-a1204 [with evanescent matter]; Clifton et JCAP(12)-a1209 [macroscopic gravity, averaged cosmological models].
@ Other models: Russell et al MNRAS(14)-a1312 [using Bianchi I models]; Lisi a1507 [the universe as a deforming Lie group]; > s.a. Chameleon Field; K-Essence; quintessence; Superfluids.
@ Alternatives to inflation: Hollands & Wald GRG(02)gq, ht/02; Kofman et al JHEP(02)ht [re Hollands & Wald]; Linde ht/02-conf [inflation vs ekpyrotic/cyclic cosmologies]; Brandenberger LNP(08)ht/07 [from string theory], PT(08)mar [rev]; Peter & Pinto PRD(08)-a0809 [bounce]; Brandenberger IJMPcs(11)-a0902, proc(12)-a1203, a1204-proc [unconventional cosmology]; Avelino & Ferreira PRD(12)-a1205 [bouncing Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld cosmologies]; Brandenberger a1206-fs [matter bounce]; Geshnizjani & Ahmadi JCAP(13)-a1309 [non-local and higher-derivative theories]; Scharf a1312 [exponential expansion in inhomogeneous cosmology without inflaton field]; Minguzzi Kron(14)-a0909 [chronology-violating region causally preceding the remainder of the Universe]; Fertig et al JCAP(16)-a1507 [conflation]; Das IJMPD(15)-a1509 [Bose-Einstein condensation]; Brandenberger a1809-in, a1911-proc [overview]; > s.a. branes; early-universe models [bounces]; Ekpyrotic Scenario; torsion in physics [Einstein-Cartan-Kibble-Sciama theory].
@ Other interpretations of redshift: Gentry MPLA(97), comment Carlip & Scranton MPLA(99)ap/98; Shimizu & Watanabe MPLA(99); Davis & Lineweaver PASA(04)ap/03 [misconceptions]; Soberman & Dubin a0803.
@ Questionable models: Mitchell 02 [Bye Bye Big Bang].
> Other models and issues: see general-relativistic cosmology; observational cosmology; theories of cosmological acceleration.

Cosmology in Other Theories of Gravity > s.a. inflation [topological].
@ General references: Capozziello et al Sigma(16)-a1509 [model surface in the space of observable parameters]; Solomon 17-PhD.
@ Supersymmetric: Enqvist et al JCAP(07)-a0706 [in MSSM]; Allahverdi MPLA(08) [rev]; Yamaguchi CQG(11)-a1101 [supergravity-based, rev]; Álvarez-Gaumé et al JCAP(11)-a1103 [based on supersymmetry breaking in supergravity models]; > s.a. supergravity phenomenology.
@ Other theories: Toloza & Zanelli AIP(12)-a1204 [different sources for gravity]; > s.a. brans-dicke theory; higher-order gravity; Induced Gravity; MOND [TeVeS].

"Cosmologists are often wrong, but never in doubt" – L Landau

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